Environmental Economics

ISSN 1998-6041 (print), 1998-605X (online)
Publisher LLC “Consulting Publishing Company “Business Perspectives”
Issued from November 2010
Environmental Economics

Since January, 2017. Journal supports Open Access.

The journal publishes the results of scientific researches, focused on sustainable social development, economic aspects of nature protection, and rational environmental management. The Editorial Board gives the privilege of publication to the original, contemporary and innovative manuscripts, which examine the economic essence of the most crucial global issues of Earth Planet, such as global warming, natural resources exhaustion, ecological disasters, etc. The advantages will be given to the articles, focused on the rational environmental management organization of separate companies or regions. Key target audience of the journal includes researchers, scholars, lecturers, students, and practitioners. It is published quarterly in Ukraine.

Key topics:

  • Sustainable Social Development, Resources and Conservation;
  • Environmental Accounts;
  • Nature Protection;
  • Natural Resources Exhaustion and Ecological Disasters;
  • Natural and Human-made Disasters Economics;
  • Biodiversity Conservation, Bioeconomics, Industrial Ecology;
  • Emergencies, Risks and Insurance;
  • Environment and International Trade;
  • Environmental Taxes and Subsidies;
  • Environmental Management and Environmental Protection;
  • Economic Problems of Global Warming;
  • Forecasting and Simulation, Econometric and Statistical Methods, Econometric Modeling;
  • Environmental, Health, and Safety Law.

Subject Area – Business, Management and Accounting. Subject Category – Business, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous).

Subject Area – Economics, Econometrics and Finance. Subject Category – Economics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous).

Subject Area – Environmental Science. Subject Category – Environmental Science (miscellaneous).

Subject Area – Energy. Subject Category – Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment.

Subject Area – Social Sciences. Subject Category – Law; Public Administration; Geography, Planning and Development.

Submission guidelines

Please send a soft copy of your manuscript as an MS Word .doc file (all versions accepted) and filled Cover letter form to the following e-mail:
Editorial Assistant -


Open Access Statement

Journal is committed to full open access for scholarly publications. All articles are available to all users immediately upon publication of the issue.
Benefits of the open access are:increased citation and usage;rapid publication; faster impact with permissive licenses; copyright retention by the author.
Authors can choose either of Creative Commons licenses (CC-BY 4.0 or CC-BY-NC 4.0). Find detailed information in the Copyright section.



Yevgen Khlobystov

Doctor of Economics, Professor at the University of Economics and Humanities, Poland.

Sergii Kharichkov

Doctor of Economics, Professor, Head of Department of Management of Odessa National Polytechnic University, Odessa, Ukraine.

Advising Editors

Sanja Tišma

Dr., Ph.D., Director of the Institute for Development and International Relations in Zagreb, Croatia.

Editorial Board

Elvio Accinellia

Dr., Professor of Economics, the Economics School, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

Adam Barcikowski

Professor Emeritus at the of Nicolaus Copernicus University, the Department of Biology and Environmental Protection, Poland.

N. Bose

Ph.D (Mechanical Engg.), Senior Professor in Mechanical Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mepco Engineering College (PO) - 626 005 Sivakasi, Virudhunagar Dist. Tamilnadu, India.
ResearcherID: B-2784-2018

Stewart Burn

Prof., Senior Principal Research Scientist Stream Leader, Infrastructure Technologies, CSIRO Water for a Healthy Country; Group Leader, Urban Water Systems Engineering, CSIRO - Land and Water, Australia.
ResearcherID: E-7770-2011

Javier Carrillo-Hermosilla

Associate Professor at the Department of Economicsand Business and a research associate of the Institute for Economic and Social Analysisat the University of Alcalá, Spain.
ResearcherID: K-2453-2012

Graciela Chichilnisky

Professor of Economics, Columbia University, USA.

Mark A. Cohen

Justin Potter Professor of American Competitive Enterprise & Professor of Law, Vanderbilt University; University Fellow, Resources for the Future, USA.
ResearcherID: H-6449-2011

Robert Costanza

Dr., Professor, Chair in Public Policy at the Crawford School of Public Policy, Australian National University, USA.
ResearcherID: A-4912-2008

Liudmyla Deineko

Professor, the Head of the Department of Industrial Policy of State Institution "Institute of Economics and Forecasting of NAS of Ukraine", Ukraine.
ResearcherID: K-3071-2017

Aghop Der-Karabetian

Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Psychology Department, College of Arts and Sciences, University of La Verne, USA.

Monica Dudian

Ph.D, Prof., Faculty of Economics, The Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies, Romania.
ResearcherID: B-3759-2018

Ivan Govender

Dr., Senior Lecturer, Economics and Management, Department of Entrepreneurial Studies and Management, Durban University of Technology, South Africa.

Jozef Antoni Haber

Ph.D., Honorary Professor of Jean Monnet Project of the European Union; Honorary Professor of the Ukrainian Banking Academy; Member of Ukrainian Economic and Philosophic Scientific Association; Head of the International Relations Department, Poznan School of Banking, Faculty in Chorzow, Poland.

Jimmy Hendrick

Associate Professor of Horticulture, Director of School of Environmental Science, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, UNISA, South Africa.

Vandna Jowaheer

Ph.D., Professor of Statistics, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Mauritius.

M. Ozgur Kayalica

Professor, Department of Management Engineering, Faculty of Management, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey.
ResearcherID: B-2734-2018

Himayatullah Khan

Dr., Prof., Director, Institute of Development Studies, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan.

D. Suresh Kumar

Dr., Ph.D., Professor of Agricultural Economics, Department of Agricultural Economics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India.

Cosimo Magazzino

Associate Professor in Econometrics and Economic Policy, Department of Political Sciences (DISCIPOL), University of Roma Tre, Italy.

Joseph Ikechukwu Mouoghalu

Professor, Department of Botany, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria.

Alexandru Mircea Nedelea

Ph.D., Associate Professor, Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Romania.

Martin Reinhardt Nielsen

Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Food and Resource Economics, The Global Development Section, The University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
ResearcherID: E-1173-2015

Valentina Okaru-Bisant

Sogato Strategies, LLC (Global Strategy and Risk Advisory Firm), The George Washington University, Elliott School of International Affairs, The Catholic University of America, USA.

Metta Ramanjaneyulu

M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D., Professor & Chairman P.G. Department of Economics, Bangalore University, Jnanbharathi, Bangaluru, India.

Ravinder Rena

Professor of Economics, NWU School of Business and Governance, North-West University, South Africa and Adjunct Professor of Economics at Monarch Business School, Switzerland.

Ganganee Chandima Samaraweera

BSc, MSc, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer, Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Mapalana, Kamburupitiya, Sri Lanka.

Hanna Shvindina

Ph.D., Deputy Chief of Department of Management, Associate Professor of the Department, Sumy State University, Ukraine.
ResearcherID: B-4494-2018

Stephan Sommer

Researcher at RWI, Leibniz-Institute for Economic Research, Department Environment and Re-sources, Environment & Resources / Umwelt &Ressourcen, Germany.

Leonid Taraniuk

D.Sc. (Economy), Professor of Economics and Business Administration Department of Sumy State University, Ukraine.
ResearcherID: B-2314-2018

Lyudmyla Zahvoyska

Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Ecological Economics, Ukrainian National Forestry University, Ukraine.
ResearcherID: B-7048-2017

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Plagiarism in all its forms is unacceptable and will lead to immediate rejection of the paper along with possible sanctions against authors.


The journal “Environmental Economics” ISSN (print) 1998-6041, ISSN (online) 1998-605X was founded by LLC “CPC “Business Perspectives” (Sumy, Ukraine) in 2010 and registered by Ministry of Justice of Ukraine (No. КВ 21680-1580Р from August 21, 2015). The journal publishes quarterly in English, Sumy, Ukraine.

Starting January 2017, the journal is open-access. The journal is committed to full open access for scholarly publications. All articles are available to all users immediately upon publication of the issue.

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To contact the Editorial office:
phone/fax: +38-063-2891070

Questions concerning manuscript (submission, status, publishing....):

Editors of the Journal “Environmental Economics”:
Yevgen Khlobystov (Doctor of Economics, Professor at the University of Economics and Humanities, Poland)
Sergii Kharichkov (Doctor of Economics, Professor, Head of Department of Management of Odessa National Polytechnic University, Odessa, Ukraine)

To contact the Publisher:
phone/fax: +38 (0542) 221707
postal address: Hryhorii Skovoroda lane, 10, Sumy 40022, Ukraine

Technical/site support please contact:

Information for subscription agencies and subscribers:

If you would like to make a complaint please contact:


Structure of the Paper and Manuscript Submission Guidelines

Before submission to the editorial staff of the journal, please check Research Misconduct Policies, infringement of which will result in immediate rejection of the manuscript and possible sanctions against the author.
The authors are strongly recommended to read the “Guidelines for Authors and Translators of Scientific Articles to be Published in English” at the website of The European Association of Science Editors (EASE) http://www.ease.org.uk/publications/author-guidelines-authors-and-translators/, which guides our work.
Make sure that the manuscript presents an academic value, significance of research, as well as that its originality and practical significance are well described; the manuscript makes a contribution to earlier researches concerning the topic.

The author should attentively read the manuscript submission guidelines. These guidelines are not so rigid that even the slightest deviation from them will result in the refusal of the manuscript. However, we ask the authors to do their best to meet them, as it will provide the quality of their materials and will make it easier for the editorial staff to set the manuscript for publication.

Please define the type of the manuscript of four possible variants and adhere to both the general guidelines and the recommendations, which are specific for the type of the chosen manuscript.

The following types of manuscripts can be submitted to the journal:

  • original scientific paper, which is a final report on the finished original experimental study;
  • theoretical paper, which is devoted to theoretical study of the problem, which complies with the journal’s scope;
  • review paper, which is a study of concrete scientific problem, which complies with the journal’s scope and is conducted based on the materials of the scientific publications;
  • short communication paper on the event (conference, seminar, exhibition, issue of the important monograph), which complies with the journal’s scope.

The manuscript should be sent to the editorial staff of the journal via e-mail together with the filled and signed Cover letter form. Please, try hard to send a paper with good level of English. Well-written manuscripts will let editors and reviewers concentrate on their academic value.

Structure of the Paper

The presentation of the material in the manuscript should be built on the principle “from the general to the particular”.

The structure of research paper should consist of the following sections (it does not exclude the presence of additional subsections) and comply with the international standard АIMRaD (Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion).

Theoretical paper – АIТвRaD (Abstract, Introduction, Theoretical Basis, Results, and Discussion).

Review paper – Abstract, Introduction, Literature review, generalization of the main statements and Discussion.

Short communication paper is structured by the author in his own, but with compulsory reference to the date and place of the event. However, it does not include a big list of references and supplementary materials.

The title of the paper should fully reflect the topic of the research and its content. It must be short and concrete (not more than 15 words). Besides it should catch the reader’s interest and it should be written using the scientific style. It is appropriate to point the object of research or concretize it using the colon or the brackets. It is not recommended to use contractions, but if used, then only for the commonly known ones.

Author (authors)
Here the name (first name and last name) of the author (authors) (Byline?) must be written. Those authors who use the patronymic or middle name should write only the first. The authors whose names are written in the Cyrillic alphabet must transliterate them correctly. Those who need the transliteration can use the websites http://translit.kh.ua/?passport or http://translit.net/.
After the names of the authors, there should be written their academic degree and academic rank, places of work (university, academic institution, etc. or the organization to which they belong) (Affiliation), city and country. If the name of city or country is already used as author's affiliation still both the city and the country should be indicated. The name of the organization or the institution must be indicated, separated by the comma in the nominative case and this name must be full, without contractions and abbreviations. Also the authors should indicate their e-mails.
If there are several authors, they make a decision themselves concerning the order of their mentioning in the title of the paper (recommended variant – depending on the contribution to the research). The list of authors includes only those persons who have really taken part in the research and agreed to bear full responsibility for its content. Research funding or taking part in paying the article processing charge is not a prerequisite for being included in the list of co-authors. While forming the list of the authors, a special attention should be paid to the COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics) principles.

In order to bring the academic degrees, academic ranks and occupations, which are used in some emerging economies or the developing countries, in line with the international standards, the corresponding table should be used ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS FOR ACADEMIC RANKS, DEGREES AND JOB TITLES.

It should be written using the following algorithm: first two or three sentences indicate the relevance of the topic; the aim and object of the study; the methodology (methods) of the study (for theoretical studies – its theoretical basis) are described; the obtained results and their practical value are characterized. At the same time, every statement must follow logically from the previous one. In the abstract for a research paper, it is recommended to use the numerical results. In the abstract of a review paper, the author can only point the issues discussed, without presenting the results. While writing the abstract, it is necessary to use the active voice instead of the passive voice, and such words as “thus”, “for instance”, “as a result”, etc. In the abstract, the author should not refer to any researches or other sources of information. The abstract should be written without subsections and without subtitles, i.e., is not structured. The text should be concise and original. It is not appropriate to use the sentences in the Abstract from the text of the paper. At the same time, the material which is absent in the paper cannot be presented in the Abstract. In the Abstract, the author should not refer to any sources, use tables and figures. The number of words must be in average 150-250.

The purpose of keywords is to provide the insight to the reader into the contents of the paper. They should reflect the area of the research. The number of keywords should be 5-10 in average. There should not be the sentences, but the words or word groups. If the object of the study is not mentioned in the title of the paper (including the country, the region), it should be added to the list of keywords. There is no need to replicate words from the title of the paper.

JEL Classification
If earlier the author was not aware of this classification system, he/she should attentively look through it in order to have a common understanding of all the areas defined in it http://www.aeaweb.org/jel/jel_class_system.php. The codes, indicated by the author should clearly reflect the research area. The author is welcome to use the codes from two or three areas, if they are covered in the research.

Both scientific issues and the relevance of the research should be substantiated and explained in the introduction. Also a problem statement should be pointed out. The introduction should not be long, the author should avoid using tables and figures.

Literature Review
Literature review provides an analysis and generalization of relevant works (papers, monographs, reports, theses, etc.), which describe the essence of the problem and/or give an understanding on the previous efforts to solve it. The Literature Review should comply with the aim of the research (“fitness for purpose”) and represent the results of critical analysis of the analytical base for testing the research hypothesis.
Literature review must not be limited only by works, which were published in the country where the author lives and works (the problem should be studied globally). Particularly it concerns the authors from non-English speaking countries (they are recommended to thoroughly analyze the works published in English).
If appropriate, normative legal acts are also analyzed.
Only those sources are given and analyzed in the paper, which really are valuable for the author’s research. The author cannot just make long lists of authors and their works, which are related to the investigated issues. The author cannot take the pieces of review text from other works with reference to other authors and include their works in the list of references. When citing, the author is obliged to observe ethical and moral principles.
While making literature review, the author can use own publications and refer to them, but only in order to describe the problem, but not to increase the citation level.
It is recommended to finish the literature review with the presentation of unsolved issues, identification of contradictions in the results and findings of the previous researches, justification of the need to continue the studies in this area and choice of the specific topic (direction) of this study.
In the literature review and throughout the text of the paper as a whole, references to the sources are made in compliance with Reference list and citation style guide or refer to APA formatting and style guide (American Psychological Association).

The aim describes main results in a short and concrete manner (in one sentence), the achievement of which is the purpose of the research. Here can also be mentioned several intermediate problems, the solution of which will ensure that the aim is achieved. The aim should not replicate the title of the manuscript.

The methods (methodology) of the study are indicated in this section (commonly known), which author uses in the research, and/or the methodology offered by the author himself is described in a short and concrete manner. If methods and procedures offered are used in other works, the author should refer to the original sources.
In this subsection of the theoretical paper the theoretical basis of the research should be described, theories, perspectives, formulae, equations should be presented.
If commonly known statistic procedures are used in the paper, the author should not describe their essence, it is sufficient just to point them.

Here empirical or theoretical data obtained in the process of the research are given. It is recommended to use figures, tables, graphs, schemes. The interpretation of the obtained results is not made in this section. Also there should not be presented the results, which were earlier obtained by the authors or other scientists.

Here the interpretation of the results obtained during the research is made. A comparison is made with the results obtained by other researchers.

In this section the main ideas of the manuscript are presented, the obtained results and their novelty are demonstrated. The possibility of practical use of the obtained results should be outlined and the directions for further scientific research should be offered.

In this subsection, the relevant scientific programs, grants, scholarships, contracts are indicated.
The author can also mention the persons or organizations, which helped him in conducting the research (access to information, organization of the survey, interview, etc.) and preparation of the paper (advice at the stage of writing, critical remarks, help in calculations, etc.).

The list of references must be made in the alphabetical order. While indicating the source, which was analyzed in the source language (not in English), it should be indicated first in the source language, then the transliteration should be made in brackets. It is recommended that it should be done with the transliteration for English-speaking systems (it is better to use transliteration of the system British Standards Institution.
Download “Business Perspectives” Reference list and citation style guide or refer to APA formatting and style guide.
Transliteration from Ukrainian can be made with the help of Ukrainian transliteration and the website http://translit.kh.ua/?passport, from Russian – with the help of Russian transliteration, from several other languages, which use the Cyrillic alphabet, with the help of the website http://translit.net/.

Supplementary Materials
The supplementary materials are the big size figures, tables, graphs, schemes, photographs, etc., which are referred to throughout the text of the paper.

Paper Submission Guidelines
The number of words in the paper may vary from 4000 to 6000 (for short communication paper – from 1000 to 2000).Considering the issue concerning the calculation of the number of words in the paper, the information about the authors, title, abstract and keywords, list of references and appendices should not be included. The number of sources, in the list of references, should not exceed 50. Supplementary materials should not exceed 5 pages. Note, that the paper should be submitted in the format Microsoft Word or compatible (.DOC, .DOCX).
Tables, schemes, figures, photographs of other authors should not be used in the text of the paper without their written permission.

The presentation of the text in the paper must comply with the Manuscript Submission Guidelines.

Publishing process

Submission process
To submit a paper, please send two copies of manuscript, one in MS Word format (.doc or .docx) and one in PDF, and completed Cover letter form attached to an e-mail to the editorial assistant.
Make sure that all supplementary materials (tables, figures, equations, and images) are editable. In case the editorial assistant asks to send editable elements, please do it as soon as possible to make the reviewing process faster. To prepare your paper for submission, please read Submission Guidelines.

Infringement of Research Misconduct Policies will result in paper rejection and possible sanctions against authors.

Review process
All papers are "double-blind" peer-reviewed. Detailed information can be found in Peer Review section.

All authors receive reviewer’s comments immediately after the manuscript had been reviewed. The authors have the opportunity to request a Referee Report, which they receive without revealing the identity of the reviewer and can appeal against editorial decisions responding to the referees with authors’ arguments and explanations.

Article Processing Charges (APC)
APC are paid by the authors in order for their articles to be published in open-access under one of Creative Commons licenses. APC cover the costs of publication process, including peer-review administrating, copy editing, hosting the files etc. APC is different for each journal; the detailed information can be found here.

After the paper is typeset, the publisher will provide the authors of accepted papers with proofs for the correction of errors. Only changes to the title of the paper, list of authors or scientific errors will be considered and further approved by the publishing team. The publisher is not responsible for the errors which are the results of authors' oversight. We reserve the right to make the final decision regarding style and the size of figures.

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Open-access articles
Authors whose articles are published in open-access retain copyright to the content of the articles. The publisher is granted the right to make the first publication of the article. Open access articles can be published under one of the following Creative Commons licenses by the author's choice (remember that licenses are irrevocable).

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 4.0: allows content to be copied, adapted, displayed, distributed, re-published or otherwise re-used for any purpose including for adaptation and commercial use provided the content is attributed.

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If the article is published in open-access under CC BY 4.0 or CC BY-NC 4.0 licenses, users may reproduce it in accordance with their terms.

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For further details and permission requests, please contact


Editorial Board members and reviewers constantly work on increasing the efficiency of manuscripts evaluation and selection of the papers that present extreme importance to the scientific field. In this respect, there are factors that result in a rejection of a significant share of papers submitted for publication. The reasons for rejection can be different. Main reasons are listed in Peer Review and Research Misconduct Policies.

LLC “CPC “Business Perspectives” emphasizes that in no case place of work or country of residence of the scientist, his racial or religious affiliation can be the reason for rejection.

In this respect, we ask the authors to pay attention to necessity of observing publication ethics principles. Submitted manuscripts should be relevant in content and comply with the aim, tasks and specialization of the journal.

The language of the manuscript should be professional, and the format should comply with the standards given. Weak English and incompliance with the format standards will not obligatorily lead to rejection, but can delay paper acceptance until the author makes the amendments. The acceptance rate for the journal is calculated as a number of manuscripts accepted for publication compared with total number of manuscripts submitted in one year.

This rate demonstrates gradual and steady decrease. By now, it is 34%.

To have a clear vision about period of consideration and process of review of your paper, authors can always contact the editorial assistant. Period of paper consideration is not fixed and can be changed depending on different factors, but our employees will keep you informed about the status of the publishing process.

The average time it takes to make a publication decision after receipt of submitted manuscript is 84 days.

Number of articles published in “Environmental Economics”:

2010 – 24
2011 – 39
2012 – 42
2013 – 37
2014 – 39
2015 – 66
2016 – 52
2017 - 46


The author may deposit pre-print version of the paper (manuscript by the author, submitted to the journal, before peer-review and without any editorial amendments) to any platform anytime with acknowledgement to the Publisher and the Journal (acknowledgement should be made as follows: "This is a pre-peer-reviewed version of the paper submitted for publication to [name of the Journal] published by LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives").

The author may deposit post-print version of the paper (accepted version of the manuscript after peer-review and content amendments, but before copyediting, typesetting and proof correction) to the author's personal website, provided that it is non-commercial, and to the repository of the author's institution, where it can be made publicly available immediately upon publication, with acknowledgement of the Publisher and the Journal (acknowledgement should be made as follows: "This is an accepted peer-reviewed version of the paper. The published version of the article is available at LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives" at http://dx.doi.org/[DOI of the article]").

The Author may deposit published version of the paper (final edited and typeset version that is made publicly available by the Publisher and can be considered an article) to any institutional repository, and distribute and make it publicly available in any way with acknowledgement to the Publisher and the Journal (acknowledgement should be made as follows: "This is a published version of the paper, available at LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives" at http://dx.doi.org/[DOI of the article]").


Article processing charge (APC) is paid only after the manuscript had been reviewed and accepted for publication. APC covers the costs of publication process, including peer-review administrating, copy editing, hosting the files etc. Business Perspectives does not employ submission or reviewing charges.

Article processing charge for “Environmental Economics” for the authors with affiliation in high-income countries or upper middle-income countries is 495 €, APC for the authors with affiliation in lower middle-income countries 460 € and APC for the authors with affiliation in low-income countries is 350 €. Please request an invoice (or information about other methods of payment) from an editorial assistant or follow the link to Pay online.

If the size of the manuscript exceeds the established limit (6000 words) then authors should contact an editorial assistant to elaborate on publication details.
Please pay attention that LLC “Consulting Publishing Company “Business Perspectives” can’t receive payments from high-risk and non-cooperative countries. The jurisdictions list http://www.fatf-gafi.org/countries/#high-risk.

During the publishing process the authors can order the printed copy of the issue from an editorial assistant per 125 €.

In order to enhance the publishing opportunities for authors from low-income countries, the Publishing Company provides a system of partial compensation of Article Processing Charges. The Publisher also offers personal discounts for some authors from these countries. In such cases the author should apply to the Publisher with a fully substantiated request concerning both discounts for APC or for a free publication. Such an application is considered in each case individually.

9 volumes and 34 issues