Banks and Bank Systems

ISSN 1816-7403 (print), 1991-7074 (online)
Publisher LLC “Consulting Publishing Company “Business Perspectives”
Issued from April 2006
Banks and Bank Systems

The journal focuses on the results of scientific researches on monetary policy issues in different countries and regions all over the world. It also analyzes the activities of international financial organizations, central banks, and bank institutions. The privilege of publication is given to the original, conceptually new, contemporary and innovative manuscripts, which examine the global issues and will be interesting to the international audience. The journal is published quarterly in Ukraine.

Key topics:

  • Monetary Policy in Different Countries and Regions;
  • Monetary and Payment Systems;
  • International Financial Organizations and Institutions;
  • Monetary Policy of Central Banks;
  • Organizational Structure, Functions and Activities of Central Banks;
  • State Policy and Regulation of Banking;
  • Bank Competitiveness;
  • Banks at the Financial Markets;
  • Bank Associations and Conglomerates;
  • International Payment Systems;
  • Investment Banking;
  • Financial Risks and Risk Management in Banks;
  • Capital and Ownership Structure, Bankruptcy and Liquidation, Mergers and Acquisitions of Banks;
  • Corporate Governance and Goodwill;
  • Personnel Management in Banks;
  • Econometric, Statistical Methods; Econometric Modeling of Bank Activities;
  • Bank Ratings.

Starting January, 2017, Journal is open-access


LLC “СPС “Business Perspectives”
Hryhorii Skovoroda lane, 10, Sumy 40022, Ukraine
phone/fax: +38-0542-775771

Submission guidelines

Please send a soft copy of your paper as an MS Word .doc file (all versions accepted) and filled Cover letter form to the following e-mail:
Editorial Assistant -


Open Access Statement

Journal is committed to full open access for scholarly publications. All articles are available to all users immediately upon publication of the issue.
Benefits of the open access are:increased citation and usage;rapid publication; faster impact with permissive licenses; copyright retention by the author.
Authors can choose either of Creative Commons licenses (CC-BY 4.0 or CC-BY-NC 4.0). Find detailed information in the Copyright section.



David T. Llewellyn

Professor of Money and Banking, Loughborough University, UK.

Gregor Kramer

Dr., Professor, Chair of Banking, Finance, and Accounting, Alanus University of Arts and Social Sciences, Germany.

Alex Plastun

Doctor of Economics, Professor of Chair of International Economics, Education and research Institute for business technologies "UAB", Sumy State University, Ukraine.

Advising Editors

Jan Gluchowski

Full Professor of Law, Rector of College of Banking, Poland.

George G. Kaufman

Ph.D, Dr., Professor of Finance and Economics, Director of the Center for Financial and Policy Studies, School of Business Administration, Loyola University Chicago, USA.

Marco J. Menichetti

Dr., Professor, Chair of Business Administration, Banking and Financial Management, Institute for Financial Services, University of Liechtenstein, Liechtenstein.

Daniel Stavarek

Ph.D., Dean, Head of Department of Finance and Accounting, School of Business Administration, Silesian University, Czech Republic.

Tatjana Volkova

Dr., Professor, BA School of Business and Finance, Latvia.

Editorial Board

Dr. Hussein Abdou

Ph.D., Professor of Banking & Finance, Business School at the Manchester Metropolitan University, UK.

Muhammad Mahboob Ali

Ph.D., Professor of Finance, Economics and Management, Dhaka School of Economics, Bangladesh. Currently Visiting Professor of Joytirmoy Business School, India.

Hussein A. Hassan Al-Tamimi

Ph.D., Professor of Finance and Head of Department of Finance and Economics, University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

Abdul Nafea Al-Zararee

Professor, Chairman of Banking and Finance Sciences Department, College of Administrative and Finance Sciences, University of Philadelphia, Jordan.

Mario Anolli

Dean of School of Banking, Finance and Insurance, Università Cattolica del S.Cuore, Italy.

James B. Bexley

Ph.D., Chairholder, Smith-Hutson Endowed Chair of Banking & Distinguished Professor of Finance, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas, USA.

Mario I. Blejer

Deputy Chairman of Banco Hipotecario, Argentina.

Klaus Broeker

Dr., Professor, Attorney at Law, Law Office Prof. Dr. Bröker, Germany.

Iftekhar Hasan

E. Gerald Corrigan Professor of Finance, Gabelli School of Business, Fordham University, New York, USA.

M. Kabir Hassan

Dr., Professor, Department of Economics and Finance, University of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

Eva Hüpkes

Head of Regulation, Swiss Federal Banking Commission, Switzerland.

Yong H. Kim

Dr., Full Professor of Finance, College of Business, University of Cincinnati, USA.

Roland Kirstein

Dr., Professor of Economics of Business and Law, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Germany. 

Andy Mullineux

Professor of Global Finance, Department of Accounting and Finance, The Birmingham Business School, The University of Birmingham, UK.

Emine Orhaner

Head of Department of Banking and Insurance Education, Faculty of Education of Commerce and Tourism, Gazi University, Turkey.

Lucjan T. Orlowski

Dr., Professor of Economics and International Finance, Department of Economics and Finance, Sacred Heart University, USA.

Peter Reichling

Dr., Professor, Chair of the Department of Banking and Finance, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.

Burak Saltoglu

Professor of Economics, Department of Economics, Boğaziçi University, Turkey.

Mayadutta H. Sharma

Ph.D., Professor of Banking, School of Accounting and Finance, Faculty of Business and Economics, University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands.

Peter Steiner

Head of the Institute of Banking and Finance, Graz University, Austria.

James B. Thomson

Professor of Finance, Chair of Department of Finance, College of Business Administration, University of Akron, USA.

Ingo Walter

Dr., Professor, Vice Dean of Faculty, Seymour Milstein Professor of Finance, Corporate Governance and Ethics, Stern School of Business, New York University, USA.

Hai-Chin Yu

Professor of Finance, Chung Yuan Christian University Business School, Taiwan.

Stavros A. Zenios

Professor, University of Cyprus, Cyprus; Senior Fellow, Wharton Financial Institutions Center, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, USA.

Mosad Zineldin

Ph.D., Professor in Economics, Strategic Relationship Management and Marketing, School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Sweden.


Luisa Anderloni

Full Professor of Financial Markets and Intermediaries, Milan University, Italy.

Ser-Keng Ang

Senior Lecturer of Finance, Lee Kong Chian School of Business, Director and Vice Chairman of the Executive Committee, UOB-SMU Entrepreneurship Alliance Centre, Singapore Management University, Singapore.

Ahmet Faruk Aysan

Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Boğaziçi University, Bebek, İstanbul, Turkey.

Giorgio Calcagnini

Professor of Economics, Department of Economics, Universita di Urbino "Carlo Bo", Italy.

Vincenzo Capizzi

Ph.D., Full Professor of Banking and Finance, Department of Economics and Business Studies, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Italia.

Gerald P. Dwyer

Professor and BB&T Scholar, Department of Economics, College of Business and Behavioral Sciences, Clemson University, USA.

Oleksandr Dzyublyuk

Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Banking, Ternopil National Economic University, Ukraine.

Jesmin Islam

Dr., Assistant Professor of Accounting, Banking & Finance, Faculty of Business & Government, University of Canberra, Bruce, Australia.

JIhor Ivasiv

Professor of Finance and Banking, Department of Banking, Kyiv National Economic University named after Vadym Hetman, Ukraine.

Oleh Kolodiziev

Dr. of Economics, Professor, Head of the Department of Banking of S. Kuznets KhNUE (Simon Kuznets Kharkiv National University of Economics), Ukraine.

Tong Li

Senior Research Analyst, Milken Institute, USA.

Juan Javier Negri

Founding member, lawyer, Negri & Pueyrredon Abogados, Argentina.

Chowdari Prasad

Professor and Dean (Academics), Institute of Finance and International Management, Bangalore, India.

Paweł Smaga


Ph.D., Assistant Professor at Warsaw School of Economics in Poland and Senior economist at National Bank of Poland.

Amine Tarazi

Professor of Economics, Head of Economics Department, University of Limoges, France.

Olga Vovchak

Doctor of Economics, Professor, Academician of the Academy of Economic Sciences of Ukraine, Head of the Department of Banking, SHEE "Banking University", Ukraine..

Oleg Yaremenko

Doctor of Economics, Professor, Senior Research Fellow of the State Organization “Institute for Economics and Forecasting, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences”, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine.

Guidelines for Editors and Reviewers

The Editorial Board consists of international experts in their respective fields. All members of the Board occupy high positions in educational and research institutions. The roles of the Editorial Board members are the following:

  • provide expertise in definite research field;
  • review submitted papers;
  • advise on journal policy and scope and participate in the journal development;
  • propose subject definition and conference choice for special issues. Also, editorial members may be guest editors of special issue;
  • promote the journal at conferences, seminars, workshops, and relevant public events
  • attract new potential authors;

Guest editors play a vital role in ensuring the quality of special content publications, such as Special Issues. Guest editors overlook the process, from proposal to publication.

The Editorial Board is reviewed every two years, which means exclusion of inactive members and addition of the new ones.

We appreciate applications from the editorial candidates. To submit an application, please send an e-mail to an editorial assistant of the selected journal and attach a file with your CV (containing the current place of work, occupation, education, the scope of your scientific interest, types of activity, list of publications, list of the journals in which you occupy the positions of an editor or a reviewer, e-mail for contact and a link to personal page at you university).

Duties of editors

We strongly recommend that Editors get acquainted with and follow COPE Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors.

The editors of the journal are responsible for deciding which of the articles submitted to the journal will be published. The editor may confer with the members of the Editorial Board in making this decision.

Fair play. The editors evaluate manuscripts without regard to the nature of the authors or the host institution including race, gender, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors.

Confidentiality. The editors, members of the Editorial Boards, and any editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone except the authors of the paper, reviewers, potential reviewers, and the publisher, for appropriate reasons.

Disclosure. Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted paper should not be used in the own research of the editors or the members of the Editorial Board without the express written consent of the author.

Duties of reviewers

We strongly recommend that all reviewers get acquainted with and follow COPE Ethical Guidelines for Peer Reviewers.

Confidentiality. Information regarding submitted manuscripts should be kept confidential during and after review process. Also, reviewers should not reveal any details about reviewing manuscript to anybody.

Standards of objectivity. Reviewers should be objective while conducting reviews. All the comments and recommendations should be supported with relevant arguments.

Disclosure. Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in a reviewer's own research without the express written consent of the author. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage.

Peer Review

Peer review plays a vital and critical role in the publication of scholarly articles through assessment of validity, quality and originality of submitted articles. It is considered to be the most effective and valid form of research evaluation to help select the highest quality articles for publication. Authors can receive the information regarding the peer-review stage of their manuscripts through editorial assistants.

Review process

Editorial staff transfers all submitted manuscripts to one of the Editors for initial evaluation in order to establish if the manuscript meets the editorial criteria. Initial evaluation includes assessment if the manuscript is suitable for the journal or special issue, authors’ qualification and background, and plagiarism levels. Papers that don’t meet these criteria, as well as obviously poor manuscripts, will be rejected without sending for further external review.

If the papers provide potential interest for readers and present importance to the scientists in the relevant field of the journal’s scope, Editors suggest external peer-reviewers (selection of peer-reviewers is based on expertise, reputation, specific recommendations and our own previous experience of a reviewer's characteristics). Alternatively, editorial staff will send manuscripts to qualified Editorial Board members or reviewers from our database.

All manuscripts are “double-blind” peer-reviewed, which means that reviewers do not possess any information about the authors’ identities and vice versa. If one of the editors submits the manuscript for publication in the journal, editorial staff transfers this manuscript to another Editor or one of the Editorial Board members without disclosing any information about the author.

After the manuscripts have been reviewed, Editors receive a Referee Report with point-by-point evaluation and comments. Based on the suitability of selected reviewers, adequacy of reviewer comments and overall scientific quality of the paper, Editors make one of the following decisions:

  • Publish unaltered
  • Consider after minor changes
  • Consider after major changes
  • Reject without further consideration

If the authors are required to revise the paper, they ought to provide revised manuscript along with Response to the Reviewers. All authors can receive Referee Report on demand without revealing the identity of the reviewer and appeal against editorial decisions by response to the referees with authors’ arguments and explanations. Articles may or may not be sent to reviewers after author revision, dependent on whether the reviewer requested to see the revised version and the wishes of the Editor.

Expectations from reviewers

During the peer-review process, report preparation, and after refereeing we expect from Editorial Board members and reviewers to:

  • respond in a reasonable time-frame, especially if reviewer can not perform the review, including intentional delay;
  • declare if they are not experts in the field the paper is relevant to;
  • declare any potentially conflicting or competing interests (which may, for example, be personal, financial, intellectual, professional, political or religious) and seek advice from the Editorial Board in this case;
  • decline to review if they feel unable to provide a fair and unbiased review or they are involved with any of the work in the manuscript or its reporting;
  • to provide honest and fair assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the research and the manuscript;
  • send completed report form along with the reviewed manuscript;
  • be specific in their criticisms, and provide evidence with appropriate references to substantiate general statements to help editors in their evaluation and decision;
  • suggest additional research if it helps strengthen or extend the work;
  • ensure their comments and recommendations for the editor are consistent with their report for the authors;
  • any suggestions and comments must be based on valid academic or technological reasons;
  • continue to keep details of the manuscript and its review confidential during and after reviewing;

Conflicts of Interest

Conflicts of interest comprise those which may not be fully apparent and which may influence the judgment of author, reviewers, and editors. They have been described as those which, when revealed later, would make a reasonable reader feel misled or deceived. They may be personal, commercial, ideological, academic, or financial.

When authors submit a manuscript of any type or format they are responsible for disclosing all financial and personal relationships that might bias or be seen to bias their work. All authors that publish in our journals are obliged to declare conflicts of interest if there are any. Declared conflicts of interest will be considered by the editor and Conflict of Interest Statement will appear in our journals at the end of the published article.

Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers. Reviewers should be objective and constructive, declare all potential conflicting interest, seeking advice from the editors if they are unsure whether something constitutes a relevant interest; do not allow their reviews to be influenced by the origins of a manuscript, by the nationality, religious or political beliefs, gender or other characteristics of the author, which could be implied in the manuscript.

Editors who make final decisions about manuscripts should not make editorial and publication decisions if they have conflicts of interest related to articles under consideration. Editorial staff must not use information received through working with manuscripts for private gain. Guest editors should follow these same procedures.

Research Misconduct Policies


LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives" uses Similarity Check service and all manuscripts that are being sent for an external peer review, are screened for originality with iThenticate software. By submitting their manuscripts to our journals authors are agreeing to any necessary originality checks the manuscript may have to undergo during the publication process.
Plagiarism implies the use another author's work without permission or acknowledgement. Plagiarism may have different forms from copying word by word to rewriting. While defining plagiarism the following definitions are taken into account:

Literal copying
Copying the work word by word, in general or in parts, without permission or acknowledgement of the source. Literal copying is clearly plagiarism and is easily detected by plagiarism software.

Substantial copying
Replicating substantial part of the work without permission and confirmation of the source. In determining what is "substantial", both the quantity and the quality of the copied content are relevant.
Quality is measured by relative value of copied text comparing to the whole text. Where the essence of the work was copied, even not very big part of it, plagiarism is identified.

Copying may be made without literal replicating, used in the original work. This type of copying is known as paraphrasing and it may be the most difficult type of plagiarism to reveal.
Plagiarism in all its forms is unacceptable and will lead to immediate rejection of the paper along with possible sanctions against authors.

Allegations about authorship of contributions

It is important that all authors are declared in the list of authors and are declared in the Cover letter form, sent along with a submitted paper.

To be considered the author, a person should be responsible for particular research aspect or preparation for work or make particular contribution to the concept, project, fulfillment, or research explanation, and it must be confirmed in the final work form.

Insignificant contribution may not be considered as an authorship. A person who provides insignificant contribution or appropriate data or other type of help may be considered as "contributor" by author/co-authors, and may be declared in the paper in acknowledgement section.

According to our policy, author/co-authors of submitted paper must fill in the Cover letter form to identify all participants, as well as confirm their consent to publish the paper.

Duplicate submission

Papers submitted for publication must be original and must not be submitted to any other journal.

Authors must present papers which are unique and must not be submitted to any other journal (except for some unusual circumstances and only with reviewer's approval). Sometimes authors may ignore this requirement, submitting the same document to several journals or submitting several documents on the basis of one and the same research. As in plagiarism duplicate submission may take different forms: literal copying, partial, but substantial copying or even paraphrased copying of the research. The publisher sticks to the policy which forbids publication of multiple papers on the basis of a single research. Infringement of this policy will result in immediate rejection along with possible sanctions against authors.

Citation manipulation

Submitted manuscripts that are found to include citations whose primary purpose is to increase the number of citations to a given author's work, or to articles published in a particular journal, will result in immediate rejection along with possible sanctions against authors.

Data falsification

If the falsified or fabricated data of experimental results (this also includes manipulation of images) will be found in the submitted paper, it will result in an immediate rejection along with possible sanctions against authors.

The following sanctions may be imposed in case of infringement of abovementioned policies:

  • Immediate rejection of the manuscript.
  •  Immediate rejection of every other manuscript submitted to any journal published by LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives".
  • Publication embargo against all authors of the manuscript (prohibition for any new submissions to any journal published by LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives"). The term of the embargo may vary, but the minimum is 24 months.
  • Prohibition against all of the authors from serving on the Editorial Board of any journal published by LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives".

Correction and Retraction Policy

All Business Perspectives journals have the same policy regarding corrections and retractions. We differentiate between addenda, errata, corrigenda, and retractions.

If significant information was unintentionally omitted by authors from the original publication, the original article can be amended through an Addendum reporting these previously omitted results. The Addendum will be published, with page numbers added, in the current issue of the journal. A hyperlink to the Addendum will also be added to the original publication.

An erratum will be used if a significant error has been introduced by us during the production of the journal article, including errors of omission such as failure to make factual proof corrections requested by authors within the deadline provided by the journal and within journal policy. A significant error is considered to be the one that affects the scholarly record, the scientific integrity of the article, the reputation of the authors, or of the journal. All errata are linked to the version of the article that they correct.

A corrigendum is a notification of a significant error made by the authors of the article. All corrigenda are approved by the editors of the journal. All corrigenda are linked to the version of the article that they correct.

Retraction will be issued by an editor upon several conditions: severe plagiarism, multiple publications, data fabrication, unreliable or faulty findings, and other harmful practices. In this case, Retraction notice will be published. This notice will include the title and authors of the article, the reason for the retraction and who is retracting the article. It will be published online with a link to the online version of the article. It will be published in the next print issue and included in the table of contents of that issue. Before publishing the notice of retraction, a signed statement by the authors should be sent to the editorial office.


This section contains information about articles which are already reviewed, accepted and waiting for publication in next issues of the journal.

Going beyond expectations: banks strategies attract and retain or deter tertiary students’ clientele

Ketsia Lorraine Motlhabane, Ph.D. Candidate; Master of Business Admin (MBA); Post-Graduate Diplomas in Tax and in Entrepreneurship. Financial Management Lecturer; North West University: Commerce and Admin Faculty; School of Management Sciences, South Africa

Abstract. The study assesses whether the banks’ strategies help to attract and retain or deter tertiary students from their businesses. It aims to highlight the banks’ need to go beyond expectations in nurturing their students’ clientele. The study can be the banks’ stepping-stone into the seemingly neglected tertiary student (TS) market. Using observation method and bank consultants’ interviews, this study probes South Africa’s (SA) major banks’ service time-lag together with student product offers and information accessibility. The study focused on whether different banks’ product offers, costing and service quality do attract and retain or deter student clients. The questions were based on students’ saving/cheque accounts, credit card and loan facilities accessibility.

Testing for explosive bubbles in the South African-US exchange rate using the sequential ADF procedures

Uchenna Elike, Ph.D., Department of Accounting and Finance, Alabama A&M University, Normal, Alabama, USA
Emmanuel Anoruo, Ph.D., Department of Accounting and Management Information Systems, Coppin State University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Abstract. This paper tests for the existence of speculative bubbles in the South African-US exchange rate using the sequential ADF procedures. In particular, the paper uses the SADF and GSADF right-tailed unit root tests to explore the existence of explosive bubbles in the South African-US exchange rate for the time period running from January1980 through July 2012. The results provide evidence in support of the existence of explosive bubbles in the nominal rand-dollar exchange rate, the real exchange rate of traded and non-traded goods. The explosive behavior exhibited by the South African rand-US dollar exchange rate can be interpreted as evidence of rational bubbles given that this behavior is driven by the fundamentals including relative prices of traded and non-traded goods.

An evaluation of bank acquisition using accounting based measure: a case of Amalgamated Bank of South Africa and Barclays Bank Plc.

Mbuyiseni Goodlife Ntuli, Dr., Lecturer at University of KwaZulu-Natal: Graduate School of Business and Leadership, South Africa

Abstract. In 2005, Barclays Bank Plc acquired 56.4 percent stake of Amalgamated Bank of South Africa (ABSA). The performance of this acquisition has never been evaluated. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to evaluate the performance of the acquired ABSA through an accounting based measure. The primary source of data was the 2004-2015 ABSA audited financial statements. The audited financial statements are publicly available. The period 2004-2015 includes a period before, during and after the acquisition. In this article, a financial statement analysis method through accounting based measure was the preferred research method. The financial statement analysis method was preferred because of its strength and ability to assess viability, stability and profitability by using formulae, ratios and calculations. Therefore, this article used financial formulae and ratios as acceptable accounting based measures to evaluate the performance of the acquired ABSA. The major finding is that the acquired ABSA is doing better than at the pre-acquisition stage and the share price of the acquired ABSA has been increasing since 2005 to 2015.

Capital regulations, supervision and the international harmonization of bank capital ratios

Kevin T. Jacques, Ph.D., Boynton D. Murch Chair in Finance, Baldwin Wallace University, Former senior economist, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, U.S. Department of the Treasury, Washington, D.C., USA

Abstract. In recent decades, despite the Basel Committee’s effort to develop internationally uniform regulatory capital standards, the capital ratios of banks across countries continue to exhibit significant differences. This paper examines the fundamental question of whether, given a uniform regulatory capital standard, regulators should expect similar banks to exhibit similar risk-based capital ratios. More specifically, this study develops a one-period theoretical model to examine the level playing field argument in light of not only uniform regulatory capital standards but also differences in bank supervision. The results of the theoretical model suggest that even with an internationally uniform risk-based capital requirement, it is unreasonable to expect banks in different countries to hold similar capital ratios. This occurs, in part, because regulators have discretion in how they apply the risk-based capital standards. Furthermore, the results suggest that a necessary condition for banks to exhibit similar capital ratios is that uniform capital requirements must be accompanied by a uniform stringency and application of regulatory supervision.

Determinants of the credit risk in developing countries: a case of Kosovo banking sector

Jehona Shkodra, Assistant Professor of Finance, Banking, Accounting, University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina”, Kosovo
Hysen Ismajli, Associate Professor of Finance, Banking, Accounting, University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina”, Kosovo

Abstract. The determinants of the credit risk of banks in developing countries have limited data to analyze and limited participation in literature. Determinants of credit risk are very important in order to determine the non-performing loans (NPL) in Kosovo banking systems. Even though banking system in Kosovo is the newest in region, it is comparable with banking system to all places in regions (Albania, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, etc.).
The main purpose of this paper is to classify some factors that influence credit risk in commercial banks in Kosovo. The research includes seven commercial banks for period 2006-2015. Data analysis and interpretation is processed with Statistical Program for Social Sciences SPSS v.19.0.
The effect of variations in the determinants of credit risk exposure is based on using a multivariate panel regression model. The empirical results suggest that a significant relationship exists between credit risk and the following variables: Profitability (ROE and ROA), Inefficiency (IE), Loans to deposit ratio (LDR), Credit growth (CG) and Deposit rate (DR), while variables Solvency (SR) and Credit rate (CR) are not statistically significant in terms of credit risk.

Do Islamic banks contribute to growth of the economy? Evidence from United Arab Emirates (UAE)

Mosab I. Tabash, Assistant Professor of Finance, College of Business, Al Ain University of Science and Technology, United Arab Emirates (UAE)
Suhaib Anagreh, Assistant Professor of Finance, College of Business, Al Ain University of Science and Technology, United Arab Emirates (UAE)

Abstract. Islamic finance has grown rapidly in the recent years particularly in the Middle East and the world. It receives a great attention of bankers and financial scholars due to its stability during financial shocks and crises. The paper uses empirical analysis to test the role of Islamic banking in enhancing the economic growth of United Arab Emirates (UAE). Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Gross formation (GF), and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) are used as representatives for economic growth, while Islamic banks’ investments are used as a representative for Islamic financial sector in the UAE. The study uses time series techniques to test the link between the variables. In the current study, co-integration along with error correction models is utilized. All econometric work is done using Eviews. The findings reveal that the causal relationship between Islamic banks’ investments and economic growth of UAE is supply-leading direction. Furthermore, the findings depict that Islamic investments have contributed in increasing investments and in bringing FDI into the country in the long-term. The study also shows that there is two-way association between Islamic banks’ investments and FDI. It shows that FDI supports Islamic banking and Islamic banking brings FDI. The paper concludes that authorities of the UAE should devote more attention for this growing banking sector by facilitating regulations for establishing new Islamic banks and then creating a suitable environment for their growth and progress in the UAE.

Asset operations of Ukrainian banks on the current stage of banking system development

Iryna Tkachuk, Ph.D. in Economic, Assistant Professor of Finance and Credit Department, Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, Ukraine

Abstract. The aim of the article is to characterize the real stage of realization of asset operations of the Ukrainian banks on the current stage of banking system development. For this aim the analysis of the Ukrainian banks activities within the period of 2011-2016 year is made. The official statistical data of the National Bank of Ukraine on asset operations of the Ukrainian banks and indicators of economic norms of banking were used. Thus, the current stage of credit operations realization by the banks of Ukraine, credit risk of the Ukrainian banks, and investment operations of the banks of Ukraine and the level of their investment risk were researched.
It has been elicited that the most numerous operations among all of the asset operations of the Ukrainian banks throughout the study period were credit operations, the volume of which, regardless of the decrease in 2013 and 2016, had a clear tendency for increase. It has been calculated that within the study period the share of loans to business entities was continuously increasing, while the share of loans to private individuals was continuously decreasing, which led to the significant change in the proportions between these two groups of loans. It has been substantiated that the whole banking system was implementing the regulatory standards of credit risk set by the National Bank of Ukraine throughout the whole study period, which signifies that the credit activity of the Ukrainian banks was being conducted in the regulatory framework set by the authorities.
Investment operations of the Ukrainian banks in the period of 2011-2016 constituted the second largest group among all of the asset operations. It has been determined that their volume increased significantly within the study period and as a result their share in the general volume of asset operation of the Ukrainian banks increased as well, which signifies a certain diversification of asset operations of the Ukrainian banks.

Influence of perceived integrity and perceived system quality on Generation Y students’ perceived trust in mobile banking in South Africa

Marko van Deventer, Dr., School of Economic Sciences, North-West University, South Africa
Natasha de Klerk, Prof., School of Economic Sciences, North-West University, South Africa
Ayesha Bevan-Dye, Prof., School of Economic Sciences, North-West University, South Africa

Abstract. Mobile banking represents an important addition to retail banks’ digital banking channels and a salient tool for servicing both current and future customers. However, given the cybernetic nature of mobile banking, there is a certain degree of uncertainty and perceived risk associated with the use thereof. This uncertainty and perceived risk elevate the importance of trust in fostering mobile banking adoption. The Generation Y cohort, which encompasses today’s youth, represents an important current and future banking segment and their adoption of mobile banking channels could have a significant effect on the cost of servicing members of this cohort. Understanding the factors that positively contribute to the Generation Y cohort’s trust in mobile banking will help retail banks to better market their mobile banking channels to members of this cohort and thereby foster greater adoption of such channels. The study reported in this article considers the influence of the perceived integrity of the bank and the perceived system quality of mobile banking on Generation Y students’ perceived trust in mobile banking in the South African context. Data were gathered from a convenience sample of 334 students registered at three public South African university campuses using a self-administered questionnaire. The gathered data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and bivariate regression analysis. The results of the study suggest that Generation Y students’ perceived integrity of a bank, together with the perceived system quality of mobile banking, has a significant positive influence on their perceived trust in mobile banking.

The impact of the independent review on SME access to bank finance: the case of South Africa

Francois Coetzee, Ph.D. Candidate, NWU School of Business and Governance, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
Pieter W Buys, Professor, WorkWell Research and NWU School of Business and Governance, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa

Abstract. It is accepted that SMEs are major contributors to global employment and GDP. Similarly, SMEs’ reliance on bank finance to maintain financial and operational sustainability is also globally accepted. In 2008, the Company’s Act of South Africa was amended to scrap the statutory audit requirement for qualifying entities, with the aim of alleviating the administrative burden of SMEs and increase their sustainability potential. As sound as this strategy may have been, a grey area arose in that banks may still insist on audited financial statements. This study investigates the question as to whether South African banks still consider audited financial statements as key in evaluating SME bank finance applications. This was done by analyzing the major banks’ requirements per their policies and follow-up discussions with loan officers. Contrary to expectations, the historic focus per audited financial statements was considered of much less importance than progressive future-oriented management statements and reports.

Internet banking fraud alertness in the banking sector: South Africa

Shewangu Dzomira, Ph.D., Research Associate, College of Economics & Management Sciences, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa; Senior Lecturer, Department of Accounting & Information Systems, Great Zimbabwe University, Zimbabwe

Abstract. This paper analyses internet banking fraud alertness to the general public by the South African banking institutions. The study is centered on routine activity theory which is a criminology theory. A qualitative content analysis was used as the research technique for the interpretation of the text data from each bank’s website through the systematic classification process of coding and identifying themes or patterns to provide an in-depth understanding of internet banking fraud alertness in the banking sector. A sample size of 13 out of 16 locally and foreign controlled retail banks in South Africa was used. The findings report that banks are not adequately providing internet fraud alertness information to the general public on their websites notwithstanding that most banks they do provide such information to log-in users and the use of that information is doubtful. This study suggests a need to augment internet banking fraud alertness information and passably inform internet banking users of the types of internet banking fraud perpetrated by internet fraudsters before they log-in for transacting. Considering the current and widespread quandary of internet banking fraud, the information of this paper is important for internet banking users to improve their aptitude in identifying fraudulent schemes and circumvent them, and for the banking institutions to invest more in the provision of internet banking fraud information to the general public.

Where to put your money to get their money: a bank advertising awareness study

James B. Bexley, Ph.D., Distinguished Professor of Finance and Chair Smith-Hutson Endowed Chair of banking, Sam Houston State University, USA
Karen Sherrill, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of General Business and Finance, Sam Houston State University, USA

Abstract. Commercial banks have many options when selecting an advertising medium. Where should a bank put its money in order to obtain the highest return? Should this medium change based on the target audience? This paper examines a number of different mediums for bank advertising and analyzes by age and by gender the efficacy of each. The authors administered a survey to over three hundred participants of varying ages asking them if they have seen bank advertisements on television, social media or the internet, billboards, traditional print media, or heard bank advertising on the radio. The survey, then, asks, if so, did it leave a favorable or unfavorable impression. Finally, the participants are asked to rank the mediums in terms of most favored to least favored. The authors find that television is the most effective medium. It reaches the broadest audience and the message is received favorably the largest percent of the time. The results show differences by age groups that can be beneficial to banks that are attempting to increase brand awareness and capture greater market share from particular age groups. For example, social media advertising works better for communicating with the younger age groups than the older age groups, however, it is still neither as effective nor as positively received as television.

IFRS adoption and earnings predictability: evidence from listed banks in Nigeria

Uwalomwa Uwuigbe, Associate Professor of Accounting, Department of Accounting, Covenant University, Ota-Lagos, Nigeria
Agba Love Uyoyoghene, M.Sc. Student, Department of Accounting, Covenant University, Ota-Lagos, Nigeria
Jimoh JAFARU, Accountancy Department, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria
Ajayi Anijesushola, Department of Accounting, Covenant University, Ota-Lagos, Nigeria
Rehimetu Jimoh, Office Technology Department, School of Information Communication Technology, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria

Abstract. The quality of financial report and the extent to which investors rely on them to forecast future earnings is dependent on the accounting standards employed. The impact of IFRS adoption on earnings predictability of listed banks in Nigeria was examined in this study considering a sample of 11 listed banks in Nigeria. Categorically, data was obtained from the financial statement 2013 to 2014 (post-adoption period) and 2010 to 2011 (pre-adoption period). The data obtained were analyzed using regression on the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). The study found a decrease in the ability of current earnings to predict future earnings after the adoption period. Thus, IFRS adoption has a negative impact on earnings predictability. The study further suggested that regulatory bodies of the banking sector should enforce strict adherence to IFRS procedures and principles as well as put in place measures that will improve investors’ protection.


Submission Guidelines

Before paper submission authors should get acquainted with Requirements to the manuscripts and arrange their paper according to them. Along with paper authors should e-mail completed Cover letter form to editor or editorial assistant of the chosen journal.

Before manuscript submission, please check Research Misconduct Policies, infringement of which will result in immediate rejection of the paper and possible sanctions against the author.

General requirements:

  • Do one’s best to send an article with good level of English. Well-built articles with a good language usage will let the reviewers and editors concentrate on the articles’ academic value, thus speeding up reviewing process.
  • Make sure that the paper presents an academic value, the newness and applicability are well described; the paper makes contribution to earlier researched results concerning appropriate topic.
  • Avoid using hyphenation in the text, make figures readable and editable, as well as tables’ style.
  • Use bold type, italics, inferior and superior signs where necessary.
  • While preparing tables use net, for column balance use tabulation.
  • In numeric values use dot instead of commas (in fractions).

Requirements to the manuscripts (PDF Version)

1. Abstract preparation guidelines
1.1. The abstract (200‐250 words) should reflect the conceptual content of the article. In the abstract the author should provide a brief overview of research importance, describe the subject matter and the aim of research, its methodology, as well as highlight the most significant results of research.
1.2. Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) classifications that can be found at, and keywords are necessary.
1.3. Font ‐ Times New Roman; text size ‐ 12 pts, line‐spacing ‐ one‐and‐a‐half.
1.4. All tables and figures should be editable.
2. The paper main body preparation guidelines
2.1. The paper should present the results of independent original research undertaken by the author; it should contain the data never published before.
2.2. The paper should contain a clear description of research objective and its subject.
2.3. The methodology of research should be described in detail.
2.4. The author personal scientific contribution must be grounded in the paper.
2.5. The paper should contain basic suggestions on how to solve the problem under study.
2.6. American English is preferred to British English.
3. The structure of the paper
3.1. The title of the paper.
3.2. Below, in the centre of the page the name of the author should be printed. Reference to the author's name should be made at the bottom of the page with the footnote marked by asterisk ("*"). The reference should contain information about the author's degree and affiliation, as well as contact details (phone number and e‐mail).
3.3. Below, the text of the abstract should be printed.
3.4. After the abstract's keywords and JEL classifications should be printed.
3.5. Below the main body of the paper should be placed.
3.6. The main body of the paper should be followed by references.
3.7. References contain the list of literature referred to given in alphabetical order.
3.8. All figures and tables should be printed inside the papers' main body.
4. References in the text
4.1. Format bibliography according to APA style (OWL Purdue Guide). In order to save your time and provide correct citations, please use an online citation generator (BibMe, CiteThisForMe etc.) or bibliography software like EndNote.
4.2. If the source is available online, it should be provided with an appropriate hyperlink, for example: Klose, J. (2017). Exchange rate movements in the presence of the zero lower bound. Banks and Bank Systems, 12(1), 82-87. doi:10.21511/bbs.12(1).2017.10 Miller, N., & Hendrickse, R. (2016). Differences in call centre agents’ perception of their job characteristics, physical work environment and wellbeing. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 14(1), 51-63. doi:10.21511/ppm.14(1).2016.06
5. Manuscript length
5.1. The paper should not be less than 2000 words and should not exceed 6000 words.

Publishing process

Submission process
To submit a paper, please send two copies of manuscript, one in MS Word format (.doc or .docx) and one in PDF, and completed Cover letter form attached to an e-mail to the editorial assistant.
Make sure that all supplementary materials (tables, figures, equations, and images) are editable. In case the editorial assistant asks to send editable elements, please do it as soon as possible to make the reviewing process faster. To prepare your paper for submission, please read Submission Guidelines.

Infringement of Research Misconduct Policies will result in paper rejection and possible sanctions against authors.

Review process
All papers are "double-blind" peer-reviewed. Detailed information can be found in Peer Review section.

Article Processing Charges (APC)
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Open-access articles
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Authors may order hardcopy reprints of their articles. Use the table to determine the cost of the reprints (prices are presented for one reprint).

Number of pages Quantity
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Editorial Board members and reviewers constantly work on increasing the efficiency of manuscripts evaluation and selection of the papers that present extreme importance to the scientific field. In this respect, there are factors that result in a rejection of a significant share of papers submitted for publication. The reasons for rejection can be different. Main reasons are listed in Peer Review and Research Misconduct Policies.

LLC “CPC “Business Perspectives” emphasizes that in no case place of work or country of residence of the scientist, his racial or religious affiliation can be the reason for rejection.

In this respect, we ask the authors to pay attention to necessity of observing publication ethics principles. Submitted manuscripts should be relevant in content and comply with the aim, tasks and specialization of the journal.

The language of the manuscript should be professional, and the format should comply with the standards given. Weak English and incompliance with the format standards will not obligatorily lead to rejection, but can delay paper acceptance until the author makes the amendments. The acceptance rate for the journal is calculated as a number of manuscripts accepted for publication compared with total number of manuscripts submitted in one year.

This rate demonstrates gradual and steady decrease. By now, it is 33%.

To have a clear vision about period of consideration and process of review of your paper, authors can always contact the editorial assistant. Period of paper consideration is not fixed and can be changed depending on different factors, but our employees will keep you informed about the status of the publishing process.

The average time it takes to make a publication decision after receipt of submitted manuscript is 80 days.

Number of articles published in “Banks and Bank Systems”:

2006 – 38
2007 – 34
2008 – 34
2009 – 38
2010 – 52
2011 – 44
2012 – 40
2013 – 44
2014 – 45
2015 – 37
2016 – 49


The author may deposit pre-print version of the paper (manuscript by the author, submitted to the journal, before peer-review and without any editorial amendments) to any platform anytime with acknowledgement to the Publisher and the Journal (acknowledgement should be made as follows: "This is a pre-peer-reviewed version of the paper submitted for publication to [name of the Journal] published by LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives").

The author may deposit post-print version of the paper (accepted version of the manuscript after peer-review and content amendments, but before copyediting, typesetting and proof correction) to the author's personal website, provided that it is non-commercial, and to the repository of the author's institution, where it can be made publicly available immediately upon publication, with acknowledgement of the Publisher and the Journal (acknowledgement should be made as follows: "This is an accepted peer-reviewed version of the paper. The published version of the article is available at LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives" at[DOI of the article]").

The Author may deposit published version of the paper (final edited and typeset version that is made publicly available by the Publisher and can be considered an article) to any institutional repository, and distribute and make it publicly available in any way with acknowledgement to the Publisher and the Journal (acknowledgement should be made as follows: "This is a published version of the paper, available at LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives" at[DOI of the article]").


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Article processing charge for “Banks and Bank Systems” is 490 €. Please request an invoice (or information about other methods of payment) from an editorial assistant or follow the link to Pay online.
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After the issue is published, the corresponding author will receive one printed copy of the issue free of charge (additional copies are available for ordering from an editorial assistant).

LLC “CPC “Business Perspectives” is considering discounts and waivers for particular cases and individuals. For this purpose authors should send an e-mail to the editorial assistant requesting a discount and specifying the reason.

12 volumes and 48 issues