Banks and Bank Systems (open-access)

ISSN 1816-7403 (print), 1991-7074 (online)
Publisher LLC “Consulting Publishing Company “Business Perspectives”
Issued from April 2006
Banks and Bank Systems (open-access)

Starting January, 2017, Journal supports Open Access.

The journal focuses on the results of scientific researches on monetary policy issues in different countries and regions all over the world. It also analyzes the activities of international financial organizations, central banks, and bank institutions. The privilege of publication is given to the original, conceptually new, contemporary and innovative manuscripts, which examine the global issues and will be interesting to the international audience. The journal is published quarterly in Ukraine.

Key topics:

  • Monetary Policy in Different Countries and Regions;
  • Monetary and Payment Systems;
  • International Financial Organizations and Institutions;
  • Monetary Policy of Central Banks;
  • Organizational Structure, Functions and Activities of Central Banks;
  • State Policy and Regulation of Banking;
  • Bank Competitiveness;
  • Banks at the Financial Markets;
  • Bank Associations and Conglomerates;
  • International Payment Systems;
  • Investment Banking;
  • Financial Risks and Risk Management in Banks;
  • Capital and Ownership Structure, Bankruptcy and Liquidation, Mergers and Acquisitions of Banks;
  • Corporate Governance and Goodwill;
  • Personnel Management in Banks;
  • Econometric, Statistical Methods; Econometric Modeling of Bank Activities;
  • Bank Ratings.

Subject Area – Economics, Econometrics and Finance. Subject Category – Economics and Econometrics; Finance.

Subject Area – Business, Management and Accounting. Subject Category – Management of Technology and Innovation; Marketing; Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management.

Subject Area – Social Sciences. Subject Category – Law; Public Administration.

Publisher

LLC “СPС “Business Perspectives”
Hryhorii Skovoroda lane, 10, Sumy 40022, Ukraine
phone/fax: +38-0542-775771

Submission guidelines

Please send a soft copy of your paper as an MS Word .doc file (all versions accepted) and filled Cover letter form to the following e-mail:
Editorial Assistant -

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Open Access Statement

Journal is committed to full open access for scholarly publications. All articles are available to all users immediately upon publication of the issue.
Benefits of the open access are:increased citation and usage;rapid publication; faster impact with permissive licenses; copyright retention by the author.
Authors can choose either of Creative Commons licenses (CC-BY 4.0 or CC-BY-NC 4.0). Find detailed information in the Copyright section.

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Editors

David T. Llewellyn

Professor of Money and Banking, Loughborough University, UK.

Gregor Kramer

Dr., Professor, Chair of Banking, Finance, and Accounting, Alanus University of Arts and Social Sciences, Germany.

Alex Plastun

Doctor of Economics, Professor of Chair of International Economics, Education and research Institute for business technologies "UAB", Sumy State University, Ukraine.

Advising Editors

Jan Gluchowski

Full Professor of Law, Rector of College of Banking, Poland.

George G. Kaufman

Ph.D, Dr., Professor of Finance and Economics, Director of the Center for Financial and Policy Studies, School of Business Administration, Loyola University Chicago, USA.

Marco J. Menichetti

Dr., Professor, Chair of Business Administration, Banking and Financial Management, Institute for Financial Services, University of Liechtenstein, Liechtenstein.

Daniel Stavarek

Ph.D., Dean, Head of Department of Finance and Accounting, School of Business Administration, Silesian University, Czech Republic.

Tatjana Volkova

Dr., Professor, BA School of Business and Finance, Latvia.

Editorial Board

Dr. Hussein Abdou

Ph.D., Professor of Banking & Finance, Business School at the Manchester Metropolitan University, UK.

Muhammad Mahboob Ali

Ph.D., Professor of Finance, Economics and Management, Dhaka School of Economics, Bangladesh. Currently Visiting Professor of Joytirmoy Business School, India.

Hussein A. Hassan Al-Tamimi

Ph.D., Professor of Finance and Head of Department of Finance and Economics, University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

Abdul Nafea Al-Zararee

Professor, Chairman of Banking and Finance Sciences Department, College of Administrative and Finance Sciences, University of Philadelphia, Jordan.

Mario Anolli

Dean of School of Banking, Finance and Insurance, Università Cattolica del S.Cuore, Italy.

James B. Bexley

Ph.D., Chairholder, Smith-Hutson Endowed Chair of Banking & Distinguished Professor of Finance, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas, USA.

Mario I. Blejer

Deputy Chairman of Banco Hipotecario, Argentina.

Iftekhar Hasan

E. Gerald Corrigan Professor of Finance, Gabelli School of Business, Fordham University, New York, USA.

M. Kabir Hassan

Dr., Professor, Department of Economics and Finance, University of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

Eva Hüpkes

Head of Regulation, Swiss Federal Banking Commission, Switzerland.

Yong H. Kim

Dr., Full Professor of Finance, College of Business, University of Cincinnati, USA.

Roland Kirstein

Dr., Professor of Economics of Business and Law, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Germany. 

Andy Mullineux

Professor of Global Finance, Department of Accounting and Finance, The Birmingham Business School, The University of Birmingham, UK.

Emine Orhaner

Head of Department of Banking and Insurance Education, Faculty of Education of Commerce and Tourism, Gazi University, Turkey.

Lucjan T. Orlowski

Dr., Professor of Economics and International Finance, Department of Economics and Finance, Sacred Heart University, USA.

Peter Reichling

Dr., Professor, Chair of the Department of Banking and Finance, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.

Burak Saltoglu

Professor of Economics, Department of Economics, Boğaziçi University, Turkey.

Mayadutta H. Sharma

Ph.D., Professor of Banking, School of Accounting and Finance, Faculty of Business and Economics, University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands.

Peter Steiner

Head of the Institute of Banking and Finance, Graz University, Austria.

James B. Thomson

Professor of Finance, Chair of Department of Finance, College of Business Administration, University of Akron, USA.

Ingo Walter

Dr., Professor, Vice Dean of Faculty, Seymour Milstein Professor of Finance, Corporate Governance and Ethics, Stern School of Business, New York University, USA.

Christian Wolff

Dr., Professor in Finance, Luxembourg School of Finance, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.

Hai-Chin Yu

Professor of Finance, Chung Yuan Christian University Business School, Taiwan.

Stavros A. Zenios

Professor, University of Cyprus, Cyprus; Senior Fellow, Wharton Financial Institutions Center, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, USA.

Mosad Zineldin

Ph.D., Professor in Economics, Strategic Relationship Management and Marketing, School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Sweden.

Reviewers

Luisa Anderloni

Full Professor of Financial Markets and Intermediaries, Milan University, Italy.

Ahmet Faruk Aysan

Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Boğaziçi University, Bebek, İstanbul, Turkey.

Alessandro Benocci

Ph.D., Professor of Business Law, University of Pisa, Italy.

Giorgio Calcagnini

Professor of Economics, Department of Economics, Universita di Urbino "Carlo Bo", Italy.

Vincenzo Capizzi

Ph.D., Full Professor of Banking and Finance, Department of Economics and Business Studies, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Italia.

Sebastian Bogdan Capraru

Ph.D. Hab, Professor of Finance, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Romania.

Iryna Chmutova

Dr. of Economics, Associate Professor, Department of Banking, Simon Kuznets Kharkіv National University of Economics, Kharkiv, Ukraine.

Oleksiy Druhov

Doctor of Economics, Professor, Vice-rector for educational work and international cooperation, Higher State Educational Institution “Banking University”, Ukraine.

Gerald P. Dwyer

Professor and BB&T Scholar, Department of Economics, College of Business and Behavioral Sciences, Clemson University, USA.

Oleksandr Dzyublyuk

Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Banking, Ternopil National Economic University, Ukraine.

Osama El-Ansary

Ph.D., Professor of Finance and Banking, Cairo University, Faculty of Commerce, Cairo University, Egypt.

Jesmin Islam

Dr., Assistant Professor of Accounting, Banking & Finance, Faculty of Business & Government, University of Canberra, Bruce, Australia.

JIhor Ivasiv

Professor of Finance and Banking, Department of Banking, Kyiv National Economic University named after Vadym Hetman, Ukraine.

Oleh Kolodiziev

Dr. of Economics, Professor, Head of the Department of Banking of S. Kuznets KhNUE (Simon Kuznets Kharkiv National University of Economics), Ukraine.

Volodymyr Lepushynskyi

Ph.D., Deputy Director, Monetary Policy and Economic Analysis Department, National Bank of Ukraine, Ukraine.

Tong Li

Senior Research Analyst, Milken Institute, USA.

Stelios N. Markoulis

Dr., Adjunct Lecturer University of Cyprus, Visiting Professor Cyprus International Institute of Management, Honorary Visiting Research Fellow Cass Business School, London, UK.

Juan Javier Negri

Founding member, lawyer, Negri & Pueyrredon Abogados, Argentina.

Chowdari Prasad

Professor and Dean (Academics), Institute of Finance and International Management, Bangalore, India.

Emil Slazak

Ph.D., Associate Professor of Finance, Insitute of Banking, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland.

Paweł Smaga

Ph.D., Assistant Professor at Warsaw School of Economics in Poland and Senior economist at National Bank of Poland.

Amine Tarazi

Professor of Economics, Head of Economics Department, University of Limoges, France.

Olga Vovchak

Doctor of Economics, Professor, Academician of the Academy of Economic Sciences of Ukraine, Head of the Department of Banking, SHEE "Banking University", Ukraine..

Oleg Yaremenko

Doctor of Economics, Professor, Senior Research Fellow of the State Organization “Institute for Economics and Forecasting, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences”, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine.

Guidelines for Editors and Reviewers

The Editorial Board consists of international experts in their respective fields. All members of the Board occupy high positions in educational and research institutions. The roles of the Editorial Board members are the following:

  • provide expertise in definite research field;
  • review submitted papers;
  • advise on journal policy and scope and participate in the journal development;
  • propose subject definition and conference choice for special issues. Also, editorial members may be guest editors of special issue;
  • promote the journal at conferences, seminars, workshops, and relevant public events
  • attract new potential authors;

Guest editors play a vital role in ensuring the quality of special content publications, such as Special Issues. Guest editors overlook the process, from proposal to publication.

The Editorial Board is reviewed every two years, which means exclusion of inactive members and addition of the new ones.

We appreciate applications from the editorial candidates. To submit an application, please send an e-mail to an editorial assistant of the selected journal and attach a file with your CV (containing the current place of work, occupation, education, the scope of your scientific interest, types of activity, list of publications, list of the journals in which you occupy the positions of an editor or a reviewer, e-mail for contact and a link to personal page at you university).

Duties of editors

We strongly recommend that Editors get acquainted with and follow COPE Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors.

The editors of the journal are responsible for deciding which of the articles submitted to the journal will be published. The editor may confer with the members of the Editorial Board in making this decision.

Fair play. The editors evaluate manuscripts without regard to the nature of the authors or the host institution including race, gender, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors.

Confidentiality. The editors, members of the Editorial Boards, and any editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone except the authors of the paper, reviewers, potential reviewers, and the publisher, for appropriate reasons.

Disclosure. Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted paper should not be used in the own research of the editors or the members of the Editorial Board without the express written consent of the author.

Duties of reviewers

We strongly recommend that all reviewers get acquainted with and follow COPE Ethical Guidelines for Peer Reviewers.

Confidentiality. Information regarding submitted manuscripts should be kept confidential during and after review process. Also, reviewers should not reveal any details about reviewing manuscript to anybody.

Standards of objectivity. Reviewers should be objective while conducting reviews. All the comments and recommendations should be supported with relevant arguments.

Disclosure. Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in a reviewer's own research without the express written consent of the author. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage.

Peer review

Peer review plays a vital and critical role in the publication of scholarly articles through assessment of validity, quality and originality of submitted manuscripts. It is considered to be the most effective and valid form of research. There are three types of peer review: open, single blind and double blind. The LLC “Business Perspectives” supports the double blind peer review. All articles which are published in the Journals of The LLC “Business Perspectives” are double blind peer reviewed.

Review process

  1. The corresponding author sends the manuscript and the cover letter, signed by all the authors of the manuscript (the manuscripts are sent via e-mail). At the first stage, the Editorial Assistant checks the structure, spelling, compliance of manuscripts with the authors’ guidelines, plagiarism, etc.
  2. At the next stage, the manuscript will be passed to the member of the Editorial Board (Handling Editor) who must read the abstract and accept the terms and conditions to exclude the conflicts of interest in order to proceed with the peer review process. Further, the Handling Editor determines whether the manuscript provides potential interest for readers and present importance to the scientists in the relevant field of the journal’s scope, judges if the topic of the manuscript corresponds to the aims and scope of the journal, assesses the novelty and relevance of the manuscript, its compliance with the requirements of the journal and whether the manuscript meets the editorial criteria.
  3. Manuscripts that don’t meet these criteria, as well as obviously poor manuscripts, will be rejected without sending for further double blind peer review.
  4. If the manuscript complies with the requirements of the journals, then the Handling Editor sends the manuscript for double blind peer review to two or more reviewers (if necessary). In the field who are not part of the journal’s editorial staff, selection of peer-reviewers is based on expertise, reputation, specific recommendations and our own previous experience of a reviewer’s characteristics (all the selected reviewers hold a Ph.D. and have recent publications in the field of the submitted manuscript). All the invited reviewers should accept the terms and conditions to exclude conflicts of interest, confirm that the manuscript fits the field of their interests, and check their availability. Then they decide to accept or decline the invitation. If possible, when declining, they might also suggest alternative reviewers. All the manuscripts are double-blind peer-reviewed, which means that reviewers do not possess any information about the authors’ identities and vice versa. Also, at this stage, the author will be informed that the manuscript was sent for the double blind peer review.
  5. After the manuscript has been reviewed, the Handling Editor inspects all the Referee Reports from the reviewers and then makes a decision. If the reviews differ significantly, the Editor may invite an additional reviewer so as to get an extra opinion before making a decision.
  6. At the last stage with point-by-point evaluation and comments, based on the suitability of selected reviewers and the recommendations, adequacy of reviewer comments and overall scientific quality of the manuscript, the Handling Editor makes one of the following decisions (which needs to be agreed by the Editor):
  • Publishable as it is.
  • Publishable with minor revisions specified in “Comments” section.
  • Reject, but encourage to re-write and re-submit with major revisions specified in “Comments” section.
  • Reject without further consideration.

If authors are required to revise the manuscript, they ought to provide the revised manuscript along with the Response to the Editorial staff. All the authors receive the reviewer’s comments immediately after the manuscript had been reviewed. If authors request a Referee Report, they receive it without revealing the identity of the reviewer and can appeal against editorial decisions responding to the referees with authors’ arguments and explanations. Manuscripts may or may not be sent to reviewers after authors’ revision, depending on whether the reviewer requested to see the revised version and the wishes of the Editor.

Expectations from reviewers

During the peer review process, report preparation, and after refereeing, we expect from the reviewers to:

  • respond in a reasonable time-frame, especially if reviewer can’t perform the review, including intentional delay;
  • declare if they are not experts in the field the manuscript is relevant to;
  • declare any potentially conflicting or competing interests (which may, for example, be personal, financial, intellectual, professional, political or religious) and seek advice from the Editorial Board in this case;
  • decline to review if they feel unable to provide a fair and unbiased review or they are involved in any of the work with the manuscript or its reporting;
  • to provide honest and fair assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the research and the manuscript;
  • send the completed report form along with the reviewed manuscript;
  • be specific in their criticisms, and provide evidence with appropriate references to substantiate general statements to help Editors in their evaluation and decision;
  • suggest additional research if it helps strengthen or extend the work;
  • ensure that their comments and recommendations for the Editor are consistent with their report for the authors;
  • give any suggestions and comments based on valid academic or technological reasons;
  • continue to keep details of the manuscript and its review confidential during and after reviewing.

Conflicts of Interest

Conflicts of interest comprise those which may not be fully apparent and which may influence the judgment of author, reviewers, and editors. They have been described as those which, when revealed later, would make a reasonable reader feel misled or deceived. They may be personal, commercial, ideological, academic, or financial.

When authors submit a manuscript of any type or format they are responsible for disclosing all financial and personal relationships that might bias or be seen to bias their work. This includes declaration of all sources of funding. All authors that publish in our journals are obliged to declare conflicts of interest if there are any. Declared conflicts of interest will be considered by the editor and Conflict of Interest Statement will appear in our journals at the end of the published article.

Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers. Reviewers should be objective and constructive, declare all potential conflicting interest, seeking advice from the editors if they are unsure whether something constitutes a relevant interest; do not allow their reviews to be influenced by the origins of a manuscript, by the nationality, religious or political beliefs, gender or other characteristics of the author, which could be implied in the manuscript.

If the founders decide to publish as authors or co-authors, they are required to include the Conflict of Interest Statement in the Publication Agreement. This statement will be also included in their published paper.

Editors who make final decisions about manuscripts should not make editorial and publication decisions if they have conflicts of interest related to articles under consideration. Editorial staff must not use information received through working with manuscripts for private gain. Guest editors should follow these same procedures.

Research Misconduct Policies

Plagiarism

LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives" uses Similarity Check service and all manuscripts that are being sent for an external peer review, are screened for originality with iThenticate software. By submitting their manuscripts to our journals authors are agreeing to any necessary originality checks the manuscript may have to undergo during the publication process.
Plagiarism implies the use another author's work without permission or acknowledgement. Plagiarism may have different forms from copying word by word to rewriting. While defining plagiarism the following definitions are taken into account:

Literal copying
Copying the work word by word, in general or in parts, without permission or acknowledgement of the source. Literal copying is clearly plagiarism and is easily detected by plagiarism software.

Substantial copying
Replicating substantial part of the work without permission and confirmation of the source. In determining what is "substantial", both the quantity and the quality of the copied content are relevant.
Quality is measured by relative value of copied text comparing to the whole text. Where the essence of the work was copied, even not very big part of it, plagiarism is identified.

Paraphrasing
Copying may be made without literal replicating, used in the original work. This type of copying is known as paraphrasing and it may be the most difficult type of plagiarism to reveal.
Plagiarism in all its forms is unacceptable and will lead to immediate rejection of the paper along with possible sanctions against authors.

Allegations about authorship of contributions

It is important that all authors are declared in the list of authors and are declared in the Cover letter form, sent along with a submitted paper.

To be considered the author, a person should be responsible for particular research aspect or preparation for work or make particular contribution to the concept, project, fulfillment, or research explanation, and it must be confirmed in the final work form.

Insignificant contribution may not be considered as an authorship. A person who provides insignificant contribution or appropriate data or other type of help may be considered as "contributor" by author/co-authors, and may be declared in the paper in acknowledgement section.

According to our policy, author/co-authors of submitted paper must fill in the Cover letter form to identify all participants, as well as confirm their consent to publish the paper.

Duplicate submission

Authors must present papers which are unique and must not be submitted to any other journal (except for some unusual circumstances and only with reviewer's approval). Sometimes authors may ignore this requirement, submitting the same document to several journals or submitting several documents on the basis of one and the same research. As in plagiarism duplicate submission may take different forms: literal copying, partial, but substantial copying or even paraphrased copying of the research. The publisher sticks to the policy which forbids publication of multiple papers on the basis of a single research. Infringement of this policy will result in immediate rejection along with possible sanctions against authors.

Citation manipulation

Submitted manuscripts that are found to include citations whose primary purpose is to increase the number of citations to a given author's work, or to articles published in a particular journal, will result in immediate rejection along with possible sanctions against authors.

Data falsification

If the falsified or fabricated data of experimental results (this also includes manipulation of images) will be found in the submitted paper, it will result in an immediate rejection along with possible sanctions against authors.

Sanctions
The following sanctions may be imposed in case of infringement of abovementioned policies:

  • Immediate rejection of the manuscript.
  •  Immediate rejection of every other manuscript submitted to any journal published by LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives".
  • Publication embargo against all authors of the manuscript (prohibition for any new submissions to any journal published by LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives"). The term of the embargo may vary, but the minimum is 24 months.
  • Prohibition against all of the authors from serving on the Editorial Board of any journal published by LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives".

Correction and Retraction Policy

All Business Perspectives journals have the same policy regarding corrections and retractions. We differentiate between addenda, errata, corrigenda, and retractions.

Addenda
If significant information was unintentionally omitted by authors from the original publication, the original article can be amended through an Addendum reporting these previously omitted results. The Addendum will be published, with page numbers added, in the current issue of the journal. A hyperlink to the Addendum will also be added to the original publication.

Errata
An erratum will be used if a significant error has been introduced by us during the production of the journal article, including errors of omission such as failure to make factual proof corrections requested by authors within the deadline provided by the journal and within journal policy. A significant error is considered to be the one that affects the scholarly record, the scientific integrity of the article, the reputation of the authors, or of the journal. All errata are linked to the version of the article that they correct.

Corrigenda
A corrigendum is a notification of a significant error made by the authors of the article. All corrigenda are approved by the editors of the journal. All corrigenda are linked to the version of the article that they correct.

Retractions
Retraction will be issued by an editor upon several conditions: severe plagiarism, multiple publications, data fabrication, unreliable or faulty findings, and other harmful practices. In this case, Retraction notice will be published. This notice will include the title and authors of the article, the reason for the retraction and who is retracting the article. It will be published online with a link to the online version of the article. It will be published in the next print issue and included in the table of contents of that issue. Before publishing the notice of retraction, a signed statement by the authors should be sent to the editorial office.

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LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives" uses Similarity Check service and all manuscripts that are being sent for an external peer review, are screened for originality with iThenticate software. By submitting their manuscripts to our journals authors are agreeing to any necessary originality checks the manuscript may have to undergo during the publication process.

Plagiarism implies the use another author's work without permission or acknowledgement. Plagiarism may have different forms from copying word by word to rewriting. While defining plagiarism the following definitions are taken into account:

Literal copying
Copying the work word by word, in general or in parts, without permission or acknowledgement of the source. Literal copying is clearly plagiarism and is easily detected by plagiarism software.

Substantial copying
Replicating substantial part of the work without permission and confirmation of the source. In determining what is "substantial", both the quantity and the quality of the copied content are relevant. Quality is measured by relative value of copied text comparing to the whole text. Where the essence of the work was copied, even not very big part of it, plagiarism is identified.

Paraphrasing
Copying may be made without literal replicating, used in the original work. This type of copying is known as paraphrasing and it may be the most difficult type of plagiarism to reveal.
Plagiarism in all its forms is unacceptable and will lead to immediate rejection of the paper along with possible sanctions against authors.

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The journal “Banks and Bank Systems” ISSN (print) 1816-7403, ISSN (online) 1991-7074 was founded by LLC “CPC “Business Perspectives” (Sumy, Ukraine) in 2006. The journal publishes quarterly in English, Sumy, Ukraine.

Since January 2017, the journal is open-access. The journal is committed to full open access for scholarly publications. All articles are available to all users immediately upon publication of the issue.

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To contact the Editorial office:
phone/fax: +38 (0542) 221707
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Questions concerning manuscript (submission, status, publishing....):

Technical/site support please contact:

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This section contains information about articles which are already reviewed, accepted and waiting for publication in next issues of the journal.

The impact of oil price crisis on financial performance of commercial banks in Bahrain

Iqbal Thonse Hawaldar, Associate Professor, College of Business Administration & Assistant to the President for Accreditation and Quality Assurance, Kingdom University, Bahrain
Babitha Rohit, Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, St. Joseph Engineering College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
Prakash Pinto, Dr., Professor and Dean, Department of Business Administration, St. Joseph Engineering College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
Rajesha T. M., Institutional Measurement Administrator, Accreditation and Quality Assurance Office, Kingdom University, Bahrain

Abstract. Oil export is the major source of revenue for the countries in the Middle East. Their economies are sensitive to fluctuations in oil prices. The present study examines the impact of oil crisis on the performance of selected banks of Kingdom of Bahrain using profitability, efficiency, capital adequacy and liquidity ratios in the pre-crisis and crisis periods. The study reveals that there is no significant difference in the performance of banks in the pre-crisis and crisis period. The results indicate that there is a significant difference in the performance of сonventional banks and Islamic banks in the pre-crisis period. However, there is no significant difference in the performance of сonventional banks and Islamic banks during the crisis period.

A second chance to serve South African private banking consumers: the role of post-transgression forgiveness

Nobukhosi Dlodlo, Ph.D., Department of Marketing Management, Faculty of Management Sciences, Vaal University of Technology, South Africa

Abstract. While service failure is inevitable in the banking sector, the manner in which service recovery efforts are expedited poses vital implications for organizations vested in profitable relationships with their clients. In this vein, this study investigates the significance of post-transgression forgiveness in defining the resultant satisfaction levels of customers. A structured questionnaire was self-administered among 371 premium banking customers. The findings point to the salience of selected service recovery efforts towards the forgiveness inclinations and ultimate satisfaction levels of banking customers. In particular, both bank reciprocity norms (ß=0.459; p<0.000) and extra-role behavior (ß=0.348; p<0.000) positively influence post-transgression forgiveness by customers. On the other hand, extra-role behavior (ß=0.407; p<0.000) and forgiveness (ß=0.373; p<0.000) positively influence bank service satisfaction. Nevertheless, bank reciprocity was found to have a positive influence on extra-role behavior (ß=0.548; p<0.000) in this study. The findings suggest the need for the development of a prescribed set of guidelines and bank procedures to support personalized service recovery efforts in the wake of service failures.

Determinants of bank profitability for the selected private commercial banks in Bangladesh: a panel data analysis

Md. Ariful Islam, DBA Candidate, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
Rezwanul Hasan Rana, Ph.D. candidate, University of Southern Queensland, Australia

Abstract. This study aims to investigate the determinants of profitability of fifteen selected ‘Private Commercial Banks’ in Bangladesh over the period of 2005-2015. The study emphasis on the internal factors that affects bank profitability. This research uses panel data to explore the impact of nonperforming loan, cost to income ratio, loan to deposit ratio, commission fees, cost of fund and operating expenses on the profitability indicators of banks like return on asset and return on equity. The experimental outcomes have found strong evidence that nonperforming loan (NPL) and operating expense have significant effect on the profitability. Moreover, the results have shown that higher NPL may lead to less profit due to provision of classified loans. Again, higher loan to deposit (LD) ratio and cost of fund contribute towards profitability but their impacts are not significant in the private commercial banks of Bangladesh.

Deposit money banks’ efficiency in three years after, during and before the 2004–2005 consolidation in Nigeria: the puzzle on size

David Mautin Oke, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, College of Law and Management Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, South Africa
Isaac A. Ogbuji, Lecturer, Department of Finance, Faculty of Business Administration, University of Lagos, Nigeria
Koye Gerry Bokana, Lecturer, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, College of Law and Management Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, South Africa

Abstract. In this paper, we examined the efficiency of deposit money banks (DMBs) in Nigeria in three years after, during and before the 2004–2005 capital consolidation in Nigeria. This consolidation period was the last period the Central Bank of Nigeria implemented an official recapitalization policy of the deposit money banks in the country. We predicated the study on a modified intermediation and efficiency measurement frameworks. It utilizes deposits, fixed assets and employees as inputs, whose costs are interest payments, depreciation and staff expenses. Performing loans and advances, investments and liquid assets constituted the output variables. We computed the efficiency scores, using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach. The data used were obtained from the DMBs that retained their identities and controlled over 75% of the banking industry’s total assets. They were purposively selected to maintain data consistency, and were size-classified by total assets. The findings show that small banks tend to be more cost efficient than medium and big banks. More so, medium sized banks tend to be more cost efficient than big bank while big banks take the lead in cost efficiency score in post consolidation period. Cost efficiency of the banks was highest during consolidation, followed by pre-consolidation and least in three years after consolidation.

Trade credit and bank credit as alternative governance structures in South Africa: evidence from banking sector development

Shame Mugova, MBA, Department of Entrepreneurial Studies and Management, Durban University of Technology, South Africa

Abstract. Financial sector development is an influential force that outlines the financing and governance of firms in emerging economies. Suppliers and bankers represent alternative governance structures to a firm because of their trade credit and loan requirements respectively. The continued monitoring of investment by banks and suppliers impact on corporate disclosure and practices. The study compares a sample of Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) firms listed on the Socially Responsible Index (SRI) which measures corporate governance and those not listed on the index. A Generalized Least Squares (GLS) random effect regression of banking sector development and trade credit of firms listed on the JSE SRI index and Non-SRI listed firms was done to ascertain whether trade credit gives firms a preferred governance system and structure. The findings affirm that good corporate governance practices improve access to bank loans for working capital financing and good governance practices do not consequently result in more bank loan as a preferred governance structure for working capital financing compared to use of trade credit.

Determining the priority sources for attracting deposits in the formation of the financial potential of banks

Iryna Hubarieva, Doctor of Economics, Associate Professor, The Head of the Energy Security Sector, Department of Industrial Policy and Energy Security, Research Center for Industrial Problems of Development, The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Professor of the Banking Department, Simon Kuznets Kharkiv National University of Economics, Ukraine
Olesіa Lebid, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor of the Banking Department, Simon Kuznets Kharkiv National University of Economics, Ukraine
Olga Zuieva, Post-graduate student of the Banking Department, Simon Kuznets Kharkiv National University of Economics, Ukraine

Abstract. The attraction of deposits by the banks in Ukraine is the basis for the formation of their resource base, which is an essential component of the banking financial potential. A qualitative formation of the bank’s resource base is carried out through proper management of attracting deposits in terms of their selection and giving preferences to specific sources of resource allocation. That is why the determination of priorities in attracting resources by banks and the formation of appropriate tools is an important tactical task in ensuring the stability of the Ukrainian banking system. The problem of new approaches to the management of deposits was especially acute during the crisis and the reduction of confidence of the population of Ukraine in the banking system, which makes actual the topic of the article and determines the importance of solving the tasks set in it. The goal of the paper is to develop tools for determining priorities of the main sources of attracting deposits by banks taking into account the system of criteria as a prerequisite for optimizing deposit portfolios of banks and the basis for the formation of their financial potential. The article proposes a sequence of stages and the corresponding tools that ensure the determination of priorities of different sources for attracting deposit funds of banks taking into account the criteria of time, minimization of costs and risks, balanced state of terms and volumes, equilibrium of costs and risks, ensuring a qualitative formation and effective use of the financial potential of the bank, ensuring a certain level of development of the bank. The use of the proposed approach made it possible to obtain such estimates that reflect priorities according to the criteria of minimization and equilibrium of risks and costs, a balanced state of terms and volumes and ensuring a specified level of the bank’s development, making it possible to determine the priorities of the main sources of attraction of financial resources for five banks in Ukraine.

Factors impeding the use of banking services in rural Southern African states

Ireen Choga, Dr., School of Economics & Decision Sciences, North West University, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa
Arthur Mapanga, School of Economics & Decision Sciences, North West University, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa
Elias Munapo, Prof., School of Economics & Decision Sciences, North West University, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa

Abstract. The paper presents factors why people are reluctant to bank money in rural Southern African countries. Seven countries namely Botswana, Namibia, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe were used in the study. A focus group of 10 people from each of the stated Southern African countries was composed and used to obtain perceptions, views, reactions, attitudes, experiences among others on why people are reluctant to bank their money. What emerged from the study is worrying? People are unwilling to bank their money in rural Southern Africa and the reasons behind this seem to be many. If no correctional measures are put in place, rural Southern Africa will continue to be unbanked for the next five decades.

Performance differences between Islamic and conventional banking forms

Turki Alshammari, Associate professor, Kuwait University, Finance Department, Kuwait

Abstract. This paper strives to recognize and possible performance differences between the two popular banking forms in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Applying different methodologies on a data that spans the period 2003–2015, this study documents significant differences with respect to the period, countries, the performance measures. Specifically, conventional banks in GCC countries outperform their Islamic counterparts in profitability. Also, bank specific factors such as liquidity, capital adequacy, bank size and growth all affect the profitability. In addition, GCC conventional and Islamic banks were isolated from the 2008 subprime crises even though their profitability seems to be decayed, differently, over the period of the economic downturn.

Corporate risk disclosure of Islamic and сonventional banks

Nejla Ould Daoud Ellili, Dr., College of Business Administration, Abu Dhabi University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 
Haitham Nobanee, Dr., College of Business Administration, Abu Dhabi University, and University of Liverpool Management School, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Abstract. This study examines the degree of the corporate risk disclosure and its impact on the banking performance using annual data of banks listed on the UAE financial markets: Abu Dhabi Stock Exchange (ADX) and Dubai Financial Market (DFM) during the period 2003-2013. The authors conduct the content analysis of the annual reports to measure the degree of the corporate risk disclosure. In addition, they use the panel data regressions to analyze the impact of the corporate risk disclosure on the performance of the banks. The results show low degree of the overall corporate risk disclosure index, strategic risk disclosure index, operational risk disclosure index, damage risk disclosure index, and risk management disclosure index for UAE listed banks. In addition, the results reveal significant differences in the overall corporate risk disclosure, strategic risk disclosure, financial risk disclosure, and risk management disclosure between conventional and Islamic banks. However, the effect of the degree of the overall corporate risk disclosure on the performance of UAE bank has been found insignificant. The findings of this paper contribute by providing a better understanding of risk disclosure practices in UAE and help the banks to optimally disclose their risk, improve the quality of their disclosure practices and enhance the quality of their financial reports. The impact of the corporate risk disclosure on the performance of the banks has not been examined by any of the prior researches. In addition, this paper examines the potential difference between Islamic and conventional banks in their corporate risk disclosure practices.

Actual problems of development of the banking sector in the economy of Kazakhstan

Gaukhar Kodasheva, Ph.D. student, Eurasian National University named after L.N. Gumilyov, Kazakhstan
Nadezhda Parusimova, Professor, Оrenburg State University, Kazakhstan
Madina Rispekova, Assistant Professor, Eurasian National University named after L.N. Gumilyov, Kazakhstan
Aigul Uchkampirova, Ph.D., Eurasian National University named after L.N. Gumilyov, Kazakhstan

Abstract. The article deals with topical issues to develop the banking sector in Kazakhstan as their condition assessment, weaknesses, strengths, problems and basic ways of development of Kazakhstan's second-tier banks in the current environment, these issues are discussed in this article and determine the relevance of the material presented. The need to address the main problems in the development of the banking sector is due to the fact that it is represented as a fundamental element of the financial system. Moreover, under the modern conditions, it is subject to the impact of financial globalization, crisis phenomena in the world economy, the growth of uncertainty in the world financial markets, which determines a number of negative consequences for the stable development of banking activities. Effective functioning of the banking system allows ensuring the sustainable economic development of any state, as the banking sector participates in the redistribution of funds and financing of the real sector of the country's economy. At the present stage of the development, the issues of dealing with the key problems of the development of the banking sector acquire special relevance on a global scale, since the financial crisis has revealed the shortcomings of the current system of banking regulation and supervision. In this regard, in the crisis conditions, the state intervention in regulation of banking activities has intensified, the role of risk management in commercial banks has increased, the requirements to the bank's capital, and the quality of assets has increased. Volatility and instability of the world financial markets require the search for new approaches in the implementation of banking activities to maintain sustainable development, increase margins in the banking business, which determines the relevance of this study. The main results of the research show the influence of external and internal factors that inhibit the development of banking activity.

The mitigation of liquidity risk in Islamic banking operations

Nabil Bello, Ph.D. student, Institute of Islamic Banking and Finance, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Aznan Hasan, Associate Professor, Institute of Islamic Banking and Finance, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Buerhan Saiti, Dr., Assistant Professor, Institute of Islamic Banking and Finance, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the issues and challenges of liquidity risk management in Islamic banks. At the same time, the authors are going to identify the sources of liquidity risk in Islamic banks and the common instruments used to mitigate liquidity mismatches in both sides of their balance sheets. The study is a qualitative study that uses secondary sources of data to describe and analyze risk mitigation in the Islamic banking context. Data were collected from libraries by referring to books, journals from both online and offline sources. The research objectives were addressed by critically analysing various issues from both the Islamic principles and contemporary applications. The authors found that Islamic liquidity management is an important building block for stable and efficient banking. Even though there are several attempts, for example, i) organized tawarruq (commodity murabahah), ii) salam sukuk and iii) short-term ijarah sukuk, to find solutions to the incessant problems of liquidity faced by majority of Islamic banks, there are still several underlying problems such as i) in terms of deficiency in infrastructure especially in countries where Islamic finance is still at an early stage, ii) lack of hedging instruments and iii) Shariah restrictions on some instruments. Regulatory bodies should come up with more innovative practices of Islamic liquidity management to solve unresolved theoretical issues and also meeting market requirements for liquidity.

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Structure of the Paper and Manuscript Submission Guidelines

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Title
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Author (authors)
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In order to bring the academic degrees, academic ranks and occupations, which are used in some emerging economies or the developing countries, in line with the international standards, the corresponding table should be used ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS FOR ACADEMIC RANKS, DEGREES AND JOB TITLES.

Abstract
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Кeywords
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JEL Classification
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Introduction
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Literature Review
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Literature review must not be limited only by works, which were published in the country where the author lives and works (the problem should be studied globally). Particularly it concerns the authors from non-English speaking countries (they are recommended to thoroughly analyze the works published in English).
If appropriate, normative legal acts are also analyzed.
Only those sources are given and analyzed in the paper, which really are valuable for the author’s research. The author cannot just make long lists of authors and their works, which are related to the investigated issues. The author cannot take the pieces of review text from other works with reference to other authors and include their works in the list of references. When citing, the author is obliged to observe ethical and moral principles.
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It is recommended to finish the literature review with the presentation of unsolved issues, identification of contradictions in the results and findings of the previous researches, justification of the need to continue the studies in this area and choice of the specific topic (direction) of this study.
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Aims
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Methods
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Discussion
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Conclusion
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Acknowledgements
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References
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Download “Business Perspectives” Reference list and citation style guide or refer to APA formatting and style guide.
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Supplementary Materials
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Paper Submission Guidelines
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Editorial Board members and reviewers constantly work on increasing the efficiency of manuscripts evaluation and selection of the papers that present extreme importance to the scientific field. In this respect, there are factors that result in a rejection of a significant share of papers submitted for publication. The reasons for rejection can be different. Main reasons are listed in Peer Review and Research Misconduct Policies.

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The average time it takes to make a publication decision after receipt of submitted manuscript is 80 days.

Number of articles published in “Banks and Bank Systems”:

2006 – 38
2007 – 34
2008 – 34
2009 – 38
2010 – 52
2011 – 44
2012 – 40
2013 – 44
2014 – 45
2015 – 37
2016 – 49

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12 volumes and 51 issues