Public and Municipal Finance (hybrid)

ISSN 2222-1867 (print), 2222-1875 (online)
Publisher LLC “Consulting Publishing Company “Business Perspectives”
Issued from February 2012
Public and Municipal Finance (hybrid)

Journal supports open-access (hybrid).

The journal publishes the results of scientific researches, focused on contemporary issues of public and municipal finance management. The Editorial Board gives the privilege of publication to the original and innovative manuscripts, which examine the following areas: formation of local budgets, implementation of state and local taxation systems, impact of state financial policy on the investment attractiveness and the economic potential of the region, general trends in legislation and local government, history of cities and retrospective analysis of the urban evolution, etc. The target audience of the journal includes researchers, scholars, lecturers, students, and practitioners. It is published quarterly in Ukraine.

Key topics:

  • State and Local Budgets;
  • Budgetary Policy (formation of budgetary revenues, optimization of budgetary costs, procedure of budget preparation);
  • Interrelationship between budgets of different levels (state, region, city);
  • Taxation systems (state and local);
  • Budget and non-budget funds;
  • Formation of state and municipal finance;
  • Private sector and economic growth;
  • Economic and investment potential of the region;
  • Legislation and local government;
  • Retrospective analysis of the urban evolution;
  • Econometric and statistical methods in public and municipal finance;
  • Econometric modeling;
  • Financial forecasting and simulation;
  • Government policy and regulation in financial sphere.

Publisher

LLC “СPС “Business Perspectives”
Hryhorii Skovoroda lane, 10, Sumy 40022, Ukraine
phone/fax: +38-0542-775771

Submission guidelines

Please send a soft copy of your paper as an MS Word .doc file (all versions accepted) and filled  Cover letter form to the following e-mail:
Editorial Assistant -

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Editors

Boyd D. Collier

Dr., Professor of Finance and Economics, Department of Accounting, Finance and Economics, Tarleton State University, USA.

Hans-Georg Petersen

Dr., Full Professor of Public Economics, University of Potsdam and Research Professor, German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Germany.

Serhiy Frolov

Head of Department of Finance of Business Entities and Insurance, University of Customs and Finance, Dnipro, Ukraine.

Advising Editors

Kudret Topyan

Ph.D., Professor of Economics and Finance, Department of Economics and Finance, School of Business, Manhattan College, USA.

Editorial Board

Bora Aktan

Ph.D., Professor of Finance, College of Business Administration, University of Bahrain, Kingdom of Bahrain; Research Fellow, EuroMed Research Business Institute, Asset Management and Emerging Markets Groups.

Nasser Arshadi

Ph.D., Professor of Finance, Vice Provost for Research, University of Missouri – St. Louis, USA.

Sung C. Bae

Ph.D., Professor, Department Chair, Department of Finance, College of Business Administration, Bowling Green State University, USA.

Yevhen Balatskyi

Ph.D., Associate Professor, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.

Massimo Biasin

Ph.D., Full Professor of Financial Intermediaries, Faculty of Economics, University of Macerata, Italy.

Valeria De Bonis

Ph.D., Professor of Public Finance, University of Pisa, Director of the Department of Economics, Member of the Academic Senate of the University of Pisa, Italy.

Sylvain Bourjade

Dr., Professor of Finance, Department of Economics and Finance, Toulouse Business School, France.

A.J. Cataldo II

Ph.D., Professor of Accounting, Chair of the Department of Accounting, College of Business and Public Affairs, West Chester University of Pennsylvania, USA.

Trevor Chamberlain

Ph.D., Dr., Professor of Finance, Chair of Finance and Business Economics, DeGroote School of Business, McMaster University, Canada.

Hsihui Chang

Ph.D., Professor of Accounting, Department Head & KPMG Endowed Chair of Bennett S. LeBow College of Business, Drexel University, USA.

Bruce W. Chase

Ph.D., Professor of Accounting, Department of Accounting, Finance and Business Law, Radford University, Director of the University's Governmental and Nonprofit Assistance Center (GNAC), USA.

Lal C. Chugh

Professor of Finance, Department of Accounting and Finance, University of Massachusetts Boston, USA.

Adrian Cloer

Dr., Professor, Chair of Business Taxation and International Tax Law, EBS Business School, University for Business and Law, Germany.

Christine Cooper

Ph.D., Professor of Accounting, School of Business, University of Strathclyde, UK.

Laurence S. Copeland

Ph.D., Professor of Finance, Cardiff Business School, Cardiff University, UK.

Ehsan H. Feroz

Ph.D., Full Professor of Accounting, Milgard School of Business, University of Washington Tacoma, USA.

Timothy J. Fogarty

Ph.D., Professor, Department of Accountancy, KPMG Peat Marwick Faculty Fellow, Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University, USA.

Emilios Galariotis

Professor of Finance, Audencia Nantes School of Management, France.

Alain Ged

Dr., Professor of Strategy, Finance and Entrepreneurship, Academic Director of the Executive MBA, Institut d'Administration des Entreprises, Université Paul Cézanne, France.

Richard J. Grant

Professor of Finance and Economics, Lipscomb University, USA.

Mark D. Griffiths

Ph.D., Professor of Finance, Department of Finance, Farmer School of Business, Miami University, USA.

Ambrish Gupta

Ph.D., Dr., Senior Professor in Finance and Accounting, FORE School of Management, India.

Mahmoud M. Haddad

Ph.D., Professor of Finance, College of Business and Public Affairs, University of Tennessee at Martin, USA.

Medhat Hassanein

Professor of Finance and Banking, Department of Management, School of Business at the American University in Cairo, Egypt.

Serge Hayward

Dr., Professor of Finance, Groupe ESC Dijon-Bourgogne, Burgundy School of Business, France.

Arne Heise

Dr., Professor of Finance and Public Governance, Department of Economics, University of Hamburg, Germany.

Ghassem A. Homaifar

Ph.D., Professor of Financial Economics, Department of Economics and Finance, Middle Tennessee State University, USA.

Keith Hooper

Ph.D., Professor of Financial Accounting and Disciplinary Chair, Department of Accounting, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand.

Ken Hung

Professor of Finance, Division of International Banking and Finance Studies, Texas A&M International University A.R. Sanchez, Jr. School of Business, USA.

Fred R. Kaen

Professor of Finance and Co-Director of the International Private Enterprise Center, Accounting and Finance Department, University of New Hampshire, USA.

Kenneth A. Kriz

Ph.D. in Public Affairs, Regents Distinguished Professor of Public Finance, Director, Kansas Public Finance Center, Wichita State University, USA.

Bart Lambrecht

Professor of Finance, Department of Accounting and Finance, Lancaster University Management School, United Kingdom.

Ioannis Lazaridis

Professor of Financial Analysis, Financial & Accounting Department, University of Macedonia, Greece.

François Longin

Ph.D., Professor of Finance, ESSEC Business School, France.

Suneel Maheshwari

Ph.D., Professor, Division of Accountancy, Marshall University, USA.

Raimondo Manca

Full Professor in Mathematics for the Applications in Economics, Finance and Actuarial Science, University “La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy.

Paul R. Mather

Ph.D., Professor of Accounting and Finance, School of Accounting, La Trobe University, Australia.

Khelifa Mazouz

Professor of Finance, Bradford University School of Management, UK.

David G. McMillan

Professor of Finance, Accounting and Finance Division, Stirling Management School, University of Stirling, UK.

Ghassan Omet

Professor, Department of Finance, University of Jordan, Jordan.

Giorgio Panella

Full Professor of Public Economics and Environmental Economics, University of Pavia, Italy.

Malcolm J. Prowle

Professor of Performance Management, University of Gloucestershire, Business School, UK.

Reza Ramazani

Ph.D., Professor of Economics, Economics Department, St. Michael's College, USA.

Walter Ried

Dr., Professor of Economics, Chair of Public Finance, University of Greifswald, Germany.

M.J. da Rocha Armada

Professor of Finance, School of Economics and Management, University of Minho, Portugal.

Adrian J. Sawyer

Dr., Professor of Taxation, Department of Accounting and Information Systems, College of Business and Economics, University of Canterbury, New Zealand.

Ronald W. Spahr

Dr., Professor of Finance, Chair of the Department of Finance, Insurance and Real Estate, Fogelman College of Business and Economics, University of Memphis, USA.

Jan Werner

Ph.D., Dr., Professor of Economics at the Cologne Business School, University of Applied Sciences in Cologne, Lead Economist at the Institute of Local Public Finance (ILPF), Germany.

John Wingender

Ph.D., Professor of Finance, Chairman of the Department of Economics and Finance, College of Business Administration, Creighton University, USA.

Ayşe Yüce

Ph.D., Professor of Finance and Chair of the Finance Department, Ted Rogers School of Business, Ryerson University, Canada.

Daniel Zéghal

Ph.D., Full Professor, Director of the CGA Accounting Research Centre, Welch LLP Teaching Fellow, Telfer School of Management, University of Ottawa, Canada.

Reviewers

Susana Gago Rodríguez

Ph.D., Associate Professor of Accounting, Department of Business Administration, Carlos III University, Spain.

Maria del Carmen Aranda

Ph.D., Professor, Faculty of Economics and Business Studies, University of Navarra, Spain.

Iryna Chmutova

Dr. of Economics, Associate Professor, Department of Banking, Simon Kuznets Kharkіv National University of Economics, Kharkiv, Ukraine.

Ruth W. Epps

Ph.D., Professor of Accounting, School of Business, Virginia Commonwealth University, USA.

Nico Groenendijk

Visiting professor of European Studies, Johan Skytte Institute of Political Studies, University of Tartu, Estonia.

Kenneth A. Kim

Ph.D., Associate Professor of Finance, State University of New York at Buffalo, the Academic Director of the Singapore EMBA Program and Chair of the MBA Program, USA.

Yulia Kovalenko

Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, Department of Financial Markets, University of the State Fiscal Service of Ukraine, Ukraine.

Mauro Romano

Ph.D., Professor of Accounting and Business Administration, University of Foggia; Professor of Firm Valuation, LUISS "Guido Carli", Rome, Italy.

Andrei Gomes Simonassi

Ph.D., Professor, Center for Economist Education in the North-East (CAEN), Federal University of Ceará, Brazil.

Richard Simper

Associate Professor in Financial Economics, Nottingham University Business School, UK.

Clifford R. Skousen

Ph.D., Professor of Accounting, School of Accountancy, Utah State University, USA.

Guidelines for Editors and Reviewers

The Editorial Board consists of international experts in their respective fields. All members of the Board occupy high positions in educational and research institutions. The roles of the Editorial Board members are the following:

  • provide expertise in definite research field;
  • review submitted papers;
  • advise on journal policy and scope and participate in the journal development;
  • propose subject definition and conference choice for special issues. Also, editorial members may be guest editors of special issue;
  • promote the journal at conferences, seminars, workshops, and relevant public events
  • attract new potential authors;

Guest editors play a vital role in ensuring the quality of special content publications, such as Special Issues. Guest editors overlook the process, from proposal to publication.

The Editorial Board is reviewed every two years, which means exclusion of inactive members and addition of the new ones.

We appreciate applications from the editorial candidates. To submit an application, please send an e-mail to an editorial assistant of the selected journal and attach a file with your CV (containing the current place of work, occupation, education, the scope of your scientific interest, types of activity, list of publications, list of the journals in which you occupy the positions of an editor or a reviewer, e-mail for contact and a link to personal page at you university).

Duties of editors

We strongly recommend that Editors get acquainted with and follow COPE Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors.

The editors of the journal are responsible for deciding which of the articles submitted to the journal will be published. The editor may confer with the members of the Editorial Board in making this decision.

Fair play. The editors evaluate manuscripts without regard to the nature of the authors or the host institution including race, gender, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors.

Confidentiality. The editors, members of the Editorial Boards, and any editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone except the authors of the paper, reviewers, potential reviewers, and the publisher, for appropriate reasons.

Disclosure. Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted paper should not be used in the own research of the editors or the members of the Editorial Board without the express written consent of the author.

Duties of reviewers

We strongly recommend that all reviewers get acquainted with and follow COPE Ethical Guidelines for Peer Reviewers.

Confidentiality. Information regarding submitted manuscripts should be kept confidential during and after review process. Also, reviewers should not reveal any details about reviewing manuscript to anybody.

Standards of objectivity. Reviewers should be objective while conducting reviews. All the comments and recommendations should be supported with relevant arguments.

Disclosure. Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in a reviewer's own research without the express written consent of the author. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage.

Peer review

Peer review plays a vital and critical role in the publication of scholarly articles through assessment of validity, quality and originality of submitted manuscripts. It is considered to be the most effective and valid form of research. There are three types of peer review: open, single blind and double blind. The LLC “Business Perspectives” supports the double blind peer review. All articles which are published in the Journals of The LLC “Business Perspectives” are double blind peer reviewed.

Review process

  1. The corresponding author sends the manuscript and the cover letter, signed by all the authors of the manuscript (the manuscripts are sent via e-mail). At the first stage, the Editorial Assistant checks the structure, spelling, compliance of manuscripts with the authors’ guidelines, plagiarism, etc.
  2. At the next stage, the manuscript will be passed to the member of the Editorial Board (Handling Editor) who must read the abstract and accept the terms and conditions to exclude the conflicts of interest in order to proceed with the peer review process. Further, the Handling Editor determines whether the manuscript provides potential interest for readers and present importance to the scientists in the relevant field of the journal’s scope, judges if the topic of the manuscript corresponds to the aims and scope of the journal, assesses the novelty and relevance of the manuscript, its compliance with the requirements of the journal and whether the manuscript meets the editorial criteria.
  3. Manuscripts that don’t meet these criteria, as well as obviously poor manuscripts, will be rejected without sending for further double blind peer review.
  4. If the manuscript complies with the requirements of the journals, then the Handling Editor sends the manuscript for double blind peer review to two or more reviewers (if necessary). In the field who are not part of the journal’s editorial staff, selection of peer-reviewers is based on expertise, reputation, specific recommendations and our own previous experience of a reviewer’s characteristics (all the selected reviewers hold a Ph.D. and have recent publications in the field of the submitted manuscript). All the invited reviewers should accept the terms and conditions to exclude conflicts of interest, confirm that the manuscript fits the field of their interests, and check their availability. Then they decide to accept or decline the invitation. If possible, when declining, they might also suggest alternative reviewers. All the manuscripts are double-blind peer-reviewed, which means that reviewers do not possess any information about the authors’ identities and vice versa. Also, at this stage, the author will be informed that the manuscript was sent for the double blind peer review.
  5. After the manuscript has been reviewed, the Handling Editor inspects all the Referee Reports from the reviewers and then makes a decision. If the reviews differ significantly, the Editor may invite an additional reviewer so as to get an extra opinion before making a decision.
  6. At the last stage with point-by-point evaluation and comments, based on the suitability of selected reviewers and the recommendations, adequacy of reviewer comments and overall scientific quality of the manuscript, the Handling Editor makes one of the following decisions (which needs to be agreed by the Editor):
  • Publishable as it is.
  • Publishable with minor revisions specified in “Comments” section.
  • Reject, but encourage to re-write and re-submit with major revisions specified in “Comments” section.
  • Reject without further consideration.

If authors are required to revise the manuscript, they ought to provide the revised manuscript along with the Response to the Editorial staff. All the authors receive the reviewer’s comments immediately after the manuscript had been reviewed. If authors request a Referee Report, they receive it without revealing the identity of the reviewer and can appeal against editorial decisions responding to the referees with authors’ arguments and explanations. Manuscripts may or may not be sent to reviewers after authors’ revision, depending on whether the reviewer requested to see the revised version and the wishes of the Editor.

Expectations from reviewers

During the peer review process, report preparation, and after refereeing, we expect from the reviewers to:

  • respond in a reasonable time-frame, especially if reviewer can’t perform the review, including intentional delay;
  • declare if they are not experts in the field the manuscript is relevant to;
  • declare any potentially conflicting or competing interests (which may, for example, be personal, financial, intellectual, professional, political or religious) and seek advice from the Editorial Board in this case;
  • decline to review if they feel unable to provide a fair and unbiased review or they are involved in any of the work with the manuscript or its reporting;
  • to provide honest and fair assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the research and the manuscript;
  • send the completed report form along with the reviewed manuscript;
  • be specific in their criticisms, and provide evidence with appropriate references to substantiate general statements to help Editors in their evaluation and decision;
  • suggest additional research if it helps strengthen or extend the work;
  • ensure that their comments and recommendations for the Editor are consistent with their report for the authors;
  • give any suggestions and comments based on valid academic or technological reasons;
  • continue to keep details of the manuscript and its review confidential during and after reviewing.

Conflicts of Interest

Conflicts of interest comprise those which may not be fully apparent and which may influence the judgment of author, reviewers, and editors. They have been described as those which, when revealed later, would make a reasonable reader feel misled or deceived. They may be personal, commercial, ideological, academic, or financial.

When authors submit a manuscript of any type or format they are responsible for disclosing all financial and personal relationships that might bias or be seen to bias their work. This includes declaration of all sources of funding. All authors that publish in our journals are obliged to declare conflicts of interest if there are any. Declared conflicts of interest will be considered by the editor and Conflict of Interest Statement will appear in our journals at the end of the published article.

Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers. Reviewers should be objective and constructive, declare all potential conflicting interest, seeking advice from the editors if they are unsure whether something constitutes a relevant interest; do not allow their reviews to be influenced by the origins of a manuscript, by the nationality, religious or political beliefs, gender or other characteristics of the author, which could be implied in the manuscript.

If the founders decide to publish as authors or co-authors, they are required to include the Conflict of Interest Statement in the Publication Agreement. This statement will be also included in their published paper.

Editors who make final decisions about manuscripts should not make editorial and publication decisions if they have conflicts of interest related to articles under consideration. Editorial staff must not use information received through working with manuscripts for private gain. Guest editors should follow these same procedures.

Research Misconduct Policies

Plagiarism

LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives" uses Similarity Check service and all manuscripts that are being sent for an external peer review, are screened for originality with iThenticate software. By submitting their manuscripts to our journals authors are agreeing to any necessary originality checks the manuscript may have to undergo during the publication process.
Plagiarism implies the use another author's work without permission or acknowledgement. Plagiarism may have different forms from copying word by word to rewriting. While defining plagiarism the following definitions are taken into account:

Literal copying
Copying the work word by word, in general or in parts, without permission or acknowledgement of the source. Literal copying is clearly plagiarism and is easily detected by plagiarism software.

Substantial copying
Replicating substantial part of the work without permission and confirmation of the source. In determining what is "substantial", both the quantity and the quality of the copied content are relevant.
Quality is measured by relative value of copied text comparing to the whole text. Where the essence of the work was copied, even not very big part of it, plagiarism is identified.

Paraphrasing
Copying may be made without literal replicating, used in the original work. This type of copying is known as paraphrasing and it may be the most difficult type of plagiarism to reveal.
Plagiarism in all its forms is unacceptable and will lead to immediate rejection of the paper along with possible sanctions against authors.

Allegations about authorship of contributions

It is important that all authors are declared in the list of authors and are declared in the Cover letter form, sent along with a submitted paper.

To be considered the author, a person should be responsible for particular research aspect or preparation for work or make particular contribution to the concept, project, fulfillment, or research explanation, and it must be confirmed in the final work form.

Insignificant contribution may not be considered as an authorship. A person who provides insignificant contribution or appropriate data or other type of help may be considered as "contributor" by author/co-authors, and may be declared in the paper in acknowledgement section.

According to our policy, author/co-authors of submitted paper must fill in the Cover letter form to identify all participants, as well as confirm their consent to publish the paper.

Duplicate submission

Authors must present papers which are unique and must not be submitted to any other journal (except for some unusual circumstances and only with reviewer's approval). Sometimes authors may ignore this requirement, submitting the same document to several journals or submitting several documents on the basis of one and the same research. As in plagiarism duplicate submission may take different forms: literal copying, partial, but substantial copying or even paraphrased copying of the research. The publisher sticks to the policy which forbids publication of multiple papers on the basis of a single research. Infringement of this policy will result in immediate rejection along with possible sanctions against authors.

Citation manipulation

Submitted manuscripts that are found to include citations whose primary purpose is to increase the number of citations to a given author's work, or to articles published in a particular journal, will result in immediate rejection along with possible sanctions against authors.

Data falsification

If the falsified or fabricated data of experimental results (this also includes manipulation of images) will be found in the submitted paper, it will result in an immediate rejection along with possible sanctions against authors.

Sanctions
The following sanctions may be imposed in case of infringement of abovementioned policies:

  • Immediate rejection of the manuscript.
  •  Immediate rejection of every other manuscript submitted to any journal published by LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives".
  • Publication embargo against all authors of the manuscript (prohibition for any new submissions to any journal published by LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives"). The term of the embargo may vary, but the minimum is 24 months.
  • Prohibition against all of the authors from serving on the Editorial Board of any journal published by LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives".

Correction and Retraction Policy

All Business Perspectives journals have the same policy regarding corrections and retractions. We differentiate between addenda, errata, corrigenda, and retractions.

Addenda
If significant information was unintentionally omitted by authors from the original publication, the original article can be amended through an Addendum reporting these previously omitted results. The Addendum will be published, with page numbers added, in the current issue of the journal. A hyperlink to the Addendum will also be added to the original publication.

Errata
An erratum will be used if a significant error has been introduced by us during the production of the journal article, including errors of omission such as failure to make factual proof corrections requested by authors within the deadline provided by the journal and within journal policy. A significant error is considered to be the one that affects the scholarly record, the scientific integrity of the article, the reputation of the authors, or of the journal. All errata are linked to the version of the article that they correct.

Corrigenda
A corrigendum is a notification of a significant error made by the authors of the article. All corrigenda are approved by the editors of the journal. All corrigenda are linked to the version of the article that they correct.

Retractions
Retraction will be issued by an editor upon several conditions: severe plagiarism, multiple publications, data fabrication, unreliable or faulty findings, and other harmful practices. In this case, Retraction notice will be published. This notice will include the title and authors of the article, the reason for the retraction and who is retracting the article. It will be published online with a link to the online version of the article. It will be published in the next print issue and included in the table of contents of that issue. Before publishing the notice of retraction, a signed statement by the authors should be sent to the editorial office.

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LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives" uses Similarity Check service and all manuscripts that are being sent for an external peer review, are screened for originality with iThenticate software. By submitting their manuscripts to our journals authors are agreeing to any necessary originality checks the manuscript may have to undergo during the publication process.

Plagiarism implies the use another author's work without permission or acknowledgement. Plagiarism may have different forms from copying word by word to rewriting. While defining plagiarism the following definitions are taken into account:

Literal copying
Copying the work word by word, in general or in parts, without permission or acknowledgement of the source. Literal copying is clearly plagiarism and is easily detected by plagiarism software.

Substantial copying
Replicating substantial part of the work without permission and confirmation of the source. In determining what is "substantial", both the quantity and the quality of the copied content are relevant. Quality is measured by relative value of copied text comparing to the whole text. Where the essence of the work was copied, even not very big part of it, plagiarism is identified.

Paraphrasing
Copying may be made without literal replicating, used in the original work. This type of copying is known as paraphrasing and it may be the most difficult type of plagiarism to reveal.
Plagiarism in all its forms is unacceptable and will lead to immediate rejection of the paper along with possible sanctions against authors.

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The journal “ Public and Municipal Finance” ISSN (print) 2222-1867, ISSN (online) 2222-1875 was founded by LLC “CPC “Business Perspectives” (Sumy, Ukraine) in 2012 and registered by Ministry of Justice of Ukraine (КВ No. 22089-11989P from April 01, 2016). The journal publishes quarterly in English, Sumy, Ukraine.

Since January 2017, the journal is hybrid (support open-access).

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To contact the Editorial office:
phone/fax: +38 (0542) 221707
postal mail: Hryhorii Skovoroda lane, 10, Sumy 40022, Ukraine
e-mail:

Questions concerning manuscript (submission, status, publishing....):

Technical/site support please contact:

Information for subscription agencies and subscribers:

For book publishing please contact:

All financial questions by email:

If you would like to make a complaint please contact:

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This section contains information about articles which are already reviewed, accepted and waiting for publication in next issues of the journal.

Challenges associated with infrastructure delivery

Mlungisi Jimmy Khumalo, Graduate School of Business & Leadership, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Ireen Choga, School of Economic and Decision Sciences, North West University, South Africa
Elias Munapo, School of Economic and Decision Sciences, North West University, South Africa

Abstract. The main purpose of this paper is to document some challenges faced by Independent Development Trust (IDT) in infrastructure delivery of the provincial government of KwaZulu-Natal. Infrastructure delivery has a significant effect on the local budgets or budgets of projects in the province. The main focus of the study was the root causes of delays, budgetary overruns and the resultant effect on service delivery back-logs and socio-economic impact caused by such delays. The study setting comprised of professional stakeholders in the built environment and these include specialists and professionals in the engineering, construction management, civil and general building fields. The objectives of this study were achieved by means of a self-administered questionnaire that was distributed to a group of participants, composed of project managers, quantity surveyors, engineers, architects and project managers working with IDT. The nature of the research was quantitative and data analysis used descriptive and a bit of inferential statistics to arrive at some generalizations and conclusions. The study was able to affirm that there are major inefficiencies in the current infrastructure delivery model of the South African government. Major causes identified include factors such as delays in payments, poor planning, subsiding levels of professional ethics and standards exercised by professionals in the built environment, and so forth. The study also made some recommendations from the research findings. Clearly the infrastructure delivery model requires a new trajectory in tackling the under-development and triple challenges of poverty, unemployment and slow economic growth.

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Structure of the Paper and Manuscript Submission Guidelines

Before submission to the editorial staff of the journal (the publisher of which is LLC “CPC “Business Perspectives”), please check Research Misconduct Policies, infringement of which will result in immediate rejection of the paper and possible sanctions against the author.

It would be advisable for the authors to read the recommendations “Guidelines for Authors and Translators of Scientific Articles to be Published in English” at the website of The European Association of Science Editors (EASE) http://www.ease.org.uk/publications/author-guidelines-authors-and-translators/, which guides our work.

Make sure that the manuscript presents an academic value, significance of research, as well as that its newness and applicability are well described; the paper makes a contribution to earlier researched results concerning the appropriate topic.

The author must attentively read the manuscript submission guidelines. These guidelines are not so rigid that even the slightest deviation from them will result in the refusal to consider the manuscript. However, we ask the authors to do their best to meet them, as it will provide the quality of their materials and will make it a lot easier for the editorial staff to further prepare the manuscript for publication.

Please define the type of the manuscript of the four possible ones and adhere to both the general guidelines and the recommendations, which are specific for the type of the chosen manuscript.

The following types of manuscripts can be submitted to the journal:

  • original scientific paper, which is a report on the finished original experimental study;
  • theoretical paper, which is devoted to theoretical study of the problem, which complies with the journal’s scope;
  • review paper, which is a study of this or that scientific problem, which complies with the journal’s scope and is conducted based on the materials of the scientific publications;
  • short communication paper on the event (conference, seminar, exhibition, issue of the important monograph), which complies with the journal’s scope.

The manuscript is sent to the editorial staff of the journal via e-mail together with the filled Cover letter form. Do one’s best to send a paper with good level of English. Well-written manuscripts will let editors and reviewers concentrate on the academic value of the papers. Note that American English is preferred to British English.

Structure of the Paper

The presentation of the material in the manuscript must be built on the principle “from the general to the specific”.

The research paper has the structure, which obligatorily consists of the following main subsections (it does not exclude the presence of some more subsections) and complies with the international standard АIMRaD (Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion).

Theoretical paper – АIТвRaD (Abstract, Introduction, Theoretical Basis, Results, and Discussion).

Review paper – Abstract, Introduction, Literature review and generalization of the main statements, and Discussion.

Short communication paper is structured by the author in his own logic, but with compulsory reference to date and place of the event. However, it does not provide for a big list of references and supplementary materials.

Title
The title of the paper must maximally reflect the main topic of the research and its content. It must be as short and clear as possible (not more than 15 words). It is recommended that it should catch the interest of the reader, but at the same time, it must obligatorily be written using the scientific style. In the title, it is acceptable to point to the object under study or concretize it using the colon or the brackets. It is undesirable to use contractions, but if used, only for the commonly known throughout the world.

Author (authors)
Here the name, the patronymic and the surname of the author (authors) (Byline) must be written. Those authors who use the patronymic to identify themselves should write it using only the first letter with a period after it. The authors whose name, patronymic and surname are written in the Cyrillic alphabet must transliterate them correctly and use them in future works only in such a way. Those who need the transliteration from Ukrainian can use the websites http://translit.kh.ua/?passport or http://translit.net/, which also give the possibility to make a transliteration from Russian, Byelorussian, Lithuanian, etc. After the names, the patronymic and the surnames of the authors, there must be written their academic degrees and academic rank, places of work (university, academic institution, etc., and the organization to which they belong) (Affiliation) and site of the research (they can coincide), city and country of the work and the research. If the name of the city or the country is used in the name of the organization, where the author (authors) works or where the research was conducted, still both the city and the country should be indicated. The name of the organization and the institution must be indicated separated by the comma in the nominative case and this name must be full, without contractions and abbreviations. Also the authors must indicate their e-mails.

If there are several authors, they make their decision themselves concerning the order of their mentioning in the paper (recommended variant – depending on their contribution to the research). The list of authors includes only those persons who took part in the process of the research and while writing the manuscript, and agreed to bear full responsibility for its content. Research funding or taking part in paying the аrticle processing charge is not a prerequisite for being included in the list of co-authors. When forming the list of the authors, attention should be paid to the COPE (Committee on Publishing Ethics) principles.

In order to bring the academic degrees, academic ranks and job titles, which are used in some emerging economies or the developing countries, in line with the international standards, the corresponding table should be used ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS FOR UKRAINIAN ACADEMIC RANKS, DEGREES AND JOB TITLES.

Abstract
It must be written using the following algorithm: in two or three sentences, the relevance of the topic chosen by the author for the research is described; the aim and object of the study are given; the methodology (method) of the study (for theoretical studies – its theoretical basis) are described; the results obtained and their practical value are characterized. At the same time, every statement must follow logically from the previous one. In the abstract for a research paper, it is desirable to use the numerical results. In the abstract for a review paper, the author can only point to the issues discussed, without presenting the results. When writing the abstract, it is necessary to use the active voice instead of the passive voice, and such words as “thus”, “for instance”, “as a result”, etc. In the abstract, the author should not refer to any works or sources of information. The abstract must be written without being divided into subsections and without using the subtitles, i.e., is not structured. The text must be concise and original. It is not acceptable to use the sentences in the Abstract taken from the main text of the paper, at the same time, the material which is absent in the paper cannot be presented in the Abstract. In the Abstract, the author should not refer to any sources, use tables and figures. The number of words must be from 150 to 250.

Кeywords
The main purpose of the keywords it to quickly provide insight to the reader into the contents of the paper. It is desirable that they reflect the area of the research. The number of the keywords must be from 5 to 10. It really must be not the sentences, but the words or word groups of two words. If the object of the study is not mentioned in the title of the paper (including the country, the region), it is desirable to add it to the list of keywords. There is no need to repeat many words from the title of the paper in the keywords.

JEL Classification
If earlier the author was not aware of this classification system, he/she should attentively look through it in order to have a common understanding of all the areas defined in it  http://www.aeaweb.org/jel/jel_class_system.php. The codes indicated by the author must clearly reflect the area within which the research was conducted. The author is welcome to use the codes from two or three areas, if they are covered in the research.

Introduction
The problem, which the paper is devoted, and the relevance of the research should be substantiated and explained in the introduction also a problem statement should be written in a general manner. The introduction cannot be long in terms of its amount. Here the author should avoid using tables and figures.

Literature Review
Literature review is an analysis and generalization of relevant works (papers, monographs, reports, theses, etc.) in which the solution of this problem is started, which describe the essence of the problem and/or give an understanding on the previous efforts to solve it and which the author relies upon. The Review must comply with the aim of the research (“fitness for purpose”) and be the result of the critical analysis of the analytical base for testing the hypothesis, on which the research is based.

Literature review must not be limited only by works, which were published in the country where the author lives and works (the problem should be studied globally). Particularly it concerns the authors from non-English speaking countries (they are recommended to thoroughly analyze the works published in English).

If appropriate, normative legal acts are also analyzed.

Only those sources are given and analyzed in the paper, which really are valuable for the author’s research. The author cannot just make long lists of authors and their works, which are related to the investigated issues. The author cannot take the pieces of review text from other works with reference to other authors and include their works in the list of references. When citing, the author is obliged to observe ethical and moral principles.

When preparing the literature review, the author can use his own publications and refer to them, but only in order to describe the problem, but not to increase the level of citation.

It is desirable to finish the literature review with the presentation of yet unsolved issues, identification of contradictions in the results and findings of the previous researches, justification of the need to continue the studies in this area and choice of the specific topic (direction) of this study.

In the literature review and throughout the text of the paper as a whole, references to the sources are made in compliance with Reference list and citation style guide or refer to APA formatting and style guide (American Psychological Association).

Aims
In the aim, the main result is described in a short and concise manner (in one sentence), the achievement of which is the purpose of the research. Here can also mentioned several intermediate problems, the solution of which will ensure that the aim is achieved. The aim must not copy the title of the manuscript.

Methods
Here are indicated the methods (methodology) of the study (commonly known), which the author uses in the process of the research, and/or the methodology offered by the author himself is described in a short and concise manner. If there are used methods and procedures offered in other works, the author should refer to the original sources.

In the theoretical paper, in this subsection, theoretical basis of the research is described, theories, perspectives, formulae, equations are presented.

If commonly known statistic procedures are used in the paper, the author should not describe their essence, it is sufficient just to point to them.

Results
Here empirical or theoretical data obtained in the process of the research are given. Here it is desirable to use figures, tables, graphs, schemes. The interpretation of the obtained results is not made in this section. In this section, there should not be presented the results, which were earlier obtained by the authors or other scientists.

Discussion
Here the interpretation of the results obtained during the research is made. A comparison is made with the results obtained by other researchers when solving the similar problems.

Conclusion
Here the main ideas of the manuscript are presented, the result is given, and its newness and the conclusion to be made when assessing it are demonstrated. The possibility of practical use of the results obtained is outlined and the directions for further researches are offered.

Acknowledgements
In this subsection, the scientific programs, grants, scholarships, contracts are indicated, within which and by the funding of which the present study was conducted.

The author can also mention the persons or organizations, which helped him in conducting the research (access to information, organization of the survey, interview, etc.) and preparation of the paper (advice at the stage of writing, critical remarks, help in calculations, etc.).

References
The list of references must be made in the alphabetical order. When indicating the source, which was analyzed in the source language (and it is not English), first it should be indicated in the source language, then the transliteration should be made in brackets. It is recommended that it be done using the transliteration for English-speaking systems (it is desirable to use transliteration of the system British Standards Institution.

Download “Business Perspectives” Reference list and citation style guide or refer to APA formatting and style guide.

Transliteration from Ukrainian can be made with the help of Ukrainian transliteration and the website http://translit.kh.ua/?passport, from Russian – with the help of Russian transliteration, from several other languages, which use the Cyrillic alphabet, with the help of the website http://translit.net/.

Supplementary Materials
The supplementary materials are the big size figures, tables, graphs, schemes, photographs, etc., which are referred to throughout the text of the paper.

Paper Submission Guidelines
The number of words in the paper may vary from 4000 to 6000 (for short communication paper – from 1000 to 2000). When considering the issue concerning the calculation of the number of words in the paper, the information about the authors, title, abstract and keywords, list of references and appendices must not be included. The number of sources, given in the list of references, cannot exceed 50. Supplementary materials must not be more than 5 pages. Note that the paper must be submitted in the format Microsoft Word or compatible (.DOC, .DOCX).

Tables, schemes, figures, photographs of other authors cannot be used in the text of the paper without their written consent.

The presentation of the text in the paper must comply with the Manuscript Submission Guidelines:

Page layout

  • Format of the text file: Microsoft Word*.DOCX (or compatible)
  • Format of the paper А4 (210×297 mm)
  • Margins: all 20 mm
  • Main text: Times New Roman, font size – 12. (it is acceptable to highlight in italics or semi-bold)
  • Title of the paper: Times New Roman, font size – 14, semi-bold
  • Titles and subtitles: Times New Roman, font size – 14
  • Line space –1.5
  • Indent –1 cm
  • Automatic hyphenation
  • Page number in the footer at the centre.

Structure of the paper
Author(s)
Title
Abstract
Кeywords
JEL Classification
Introduction
1.
2.
3.
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References
Appendix

Tables

  • Tables given as figures or screenshots are NOT ACCEPTABLE
  • The title of the paper must be written as a main text
  • Reference to the source must be placed after the title (font size – 9)
  • Notes must be placed directly below the table (font size – 9)
  • Tables must be of the same design throughout the whole manuscript (fonts and lines, titles and columns, interline layout, etc.)
  • “Reverted” (cross-sectional tables – are read when the issue is turned by 90 degrees clockwise.

Graphic information

  • Graphic illustrations (flow charts, diagrams, graphs) must be built in the programs of МS OFFICE, and contain the built-in data file
  • Graphic information must be presented in shades of grey (color illustrations are NOT ACCEPTABLE)
  • Illustrations which were built in other programs or taken from other resources must be inserted in formats *.wmf, *.eps, (or *.jpg, *.png with the resolution 300 dots per inch)
  • Maximum size of the illustration in the made-up form is 16x23 cm.

Formulae

  • Formulae must be written with the help of the formula builder, note that the file of the manuscript must be saved in the format .docx
  • It is NOT ACCEPTABLE to insert the formulae in the form of figures or screenshots!

Special letters, typography, etc.:

  • The integral and the decimal part of complex numbers must be separated with the help of the “dot” (for example, 1.02), the digit position must be separated with the help of the “comma”, for example, 1,200,000 or 1,200,000.008
  • When writing the paper, it is obligatory to distinguish between the hyphen, “-” and dash/minus “–”
  • It is prohibited to use the Cyrillic alphabet to simulate the Latin one
  • The commonly known contractions, abbreviations, acronyms and special symbols can be used in the text of the manuscript, but less known one must be expanded when mentioned in the text for the first time
  • The units of measurement used must comply with the International System of Units
  • Symbols which are used for constants must be highlighted in italics (for example, J, K, m/z), but do not highlight the figures which correspond to them.

Guidelines for footnotes and references

  • It is NOT ACCEPTABLE to insert the footnotes throughout the text of the paper!
  • It is NOT ACCEPTABLE to insert the internal references!
  • All the footnotes must be inserted as usual ones, at the end of the end of the paper and be numbered with the help of the consecutive numbering.

Publishing process

Submission process
To submit a paper, please send two copies of manuscript, one in MS Word format (.doc or .docx) and one in PDF, and completed Cover letter form attached to an e-mail to the editorial assistant.
Make sure that all supplementary materials (tables, figures, equations, and images) are editable. In case the editorial assistant asks to send editable elements, please do it as soon as possible to make the reviewing process faster. To prepare your paper for submission, please read Submission Guidelines.

Infringement of Research Misconduct Policies will result in paper rejection and possible sanctions against authors.

Review process
All papers are "double-blind" peer-reviewed. Detailed information can be found in Peer Review section.

All authors receive reviewer’s comments immediately after the manuscript had been reviewed. The authors have the opportunity to request a Referee Report, which they receive without revealing the identity of the reviewer and can appeal against editorial decisions responding to the referees with authors’ arguments and explanations.

Article Processing Charges (APC)
APC are paid by the authors in order for their articles to be published in open-access under one of Creative Commons licenses. APC cover the costs of publication process, including peer-review administrating, copy editing, hosting the files etc. APC is different for each journal and detailed information can be found on the respective journal pages.

Proofreading
After the paper is typeset, the publisher will provide the authors of accepted papers with proofs for the correction of errors. Only changes to the title of the paper, list of authors or scientific errors will be considered and further approved by the publishing team. The publisher is not responsible for the errors which are the results of authors' oversight. We reserve the right to make the final decision regarding style and the size of figures.

Personal Information Use and Protection

Provided personal information:

  • contact information (name, e-mail address, post address, and phone number);
  • information about education and professional experience;
  • sign-in information;
  • information about payment, e.g. credit or debit cards numbers;
  • comments, reviews and messages you have posted at our resource;

Publisher may use authors’ personal information to:

  • maintain the terms of copyright;
  • find, investigate, and prevent security threat, fraud or other malpractice;
  • provide authors with our resources, give them access to our products and services, fulfill order or transaction, hold researches or transactions;
  • address authors’ claims, comments or problems;
  • provide technical support;
  • provide authors with individual personalized content and services;
  • improve the quality of our resources, work out new products and services;
  • define and analyze new trends;
  • inform authors about all changes and updates of our resources, products and services.

We may share authors’ information with appropriate agents, representatives, mutual establishments and organizations, we are agents or sponsors to. This information may be shared only for appropriate reasons, which may be important for us in business matters or according to our legal obligations.

LLC “CPC “Business Perspectives” takes all necessary precautionary measures to protect your personal information from theft, abuse, unauthorized access, disclosure, change, and distraction with the help of appropriate administrative, physical, and technical measures in providing security.

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Copyright

LLC “CPC "Business Perspectives” protects your rights as an author and guarantees that any juridical information and questions regarding author’s right will be regulated.

Author's rights
Author's rights to the contents of the article are determined by whether the article is published in open access or as a subscription article.

Subscription articles
Full and exclusive publishing rights and full copyright to the article belong to the publisher.

Open-access articles
Authors whose articles are published in open-access retain copyright to the content of the articles. The publisher is granted the right to make the first publication of the article. Open access articles can be published under one of the following Creative Commons licenses by the author's choice (remember that licenses are irrevocable).

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 4.0: allows content to be copied, adapted, displayed, distributed, re-published or otherwise re-used for any purpose including for adaptation and commercial use provided the content is attributed.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC) 4.0: allows content to be copied, adapted, displayed, distributed, republished or otherwise re-used provided the purpose of these activities is not for commercial use and the content is attributed. Commercial use means use of the content by a commercial organization or individual for direct or indirect gain or remuneration.

Permissions/Reprints

Permissions
If the article is published in open-access under CC BY 4.0 or CC BY-NC 4.0 licenses, users may reproduce it in accordance with their terms.

Additionally, if the article had been published under CC BY-NC 4.0, the use for the following commercial purposes requires permission:

  • reproduction of content in a work or product intended for sale;
  • reproduction in presentations, brochures or other marketing materials used for commercial purposes;
  • distribution of the content to promote or market a person, product, course, service or organization;
  • text and data mining for the purpose of creating a saleable product or product which benefits from promotional or advertising revenue;
  • use of the content by a commercial entity or individual for the purposes of remuneration, directly or indirectly through sale, licensing, promotion or advertising;
  • linking to the content (in an email, webpage, portable electronic device or otherwise) for the specific purpose of marketing or advertising a person, product, course, service or organization for commercial benefit.

If the published article is available to subscribers only, the author can use the materials of the paper in theses or dissertation, articles may be presented as a presentation, copies of the article may be used by their colleagues in researches, authors can make print or electronic copies for personal use. Thus, authors can reproduce their own work without applying for permission. We only ask for final acknowledgement of first publication and a link to the definite published version.

For further details and permission requests, please contact

Reprints
If the published article is available to subscribers only, then, for it to be re-printed (reproduced), the author should contact the Publisher and get the corresponding permission. Define the aim of reprint, fill Reprint Permission Form and e-mail it to LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives". All other users should complete the Reprint Permission Form or contact our staff for full details of their reproduction requirements and full reference:

  • Article title
  • Author(s)
  • Journal title
  • Journal volume, issue and year
  • How you wish to use the article

We aim to respond to permissions requests whenever possible within 10 working days.

Hardcopy reprints

Authors may order hardcopy reprints of their articles. Use the table to determine the cost of the reprints (prices are presented for one reprint).

Number of pages Quantity
Up to 50 50-100 100-200
1-10 € 10 € 8 € 7
10-20 € 12 € 10 € 8
20-25 € 15 € 12 € 11

Minimum quantity of the hardcopy reprints the authors can order is 15 items.

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Editorial Board members and reviewers constantly work on increasing the efficiency of manuscripts evaluation and selection of the papers that present extreme importance to the scientific field. In this respect, there are factors that result in a rejection of a significant share of papers submitted for publication. The reasons for rejection can be different. Main reasons are listed in Peer Review and Research Misconduct Policies.

LLC “CPC “Business Perspectives” emphasizes that in no case place of work or country of residence of the scientist, his racial or religious affiliation can be the reason for rejection.

In this respect, we ask the authors to pay attention to necessity of observing publication ethics principles. Submitted manuscripts should be relevant in content and comply with the aim, tasks and specialization of the journal.

The language of the manuscript should be professional, and the format should comply with the standards given. Weak English and incompliance with the format standards will not obligatorily lead to rejection, but can delay paper acceptance until the author makes the amendments. The acceptance rate for the journal is calculated as a number of manuscripts accepted for publication compared with total number of manuscripts submitted in one year.

This rate demonstrates gradual and steady decrease. By now, it is 35%.

To have a clear vision about period of consideration and process of review of your paper, authors can always contact the editorial assistant. Period of paper consideration is not fixed and can be changed depending on different factors, but our employees will keep you informed about the status of the publishing process.

The average time it takes to make a publication decision after receipt of submitted manuscript is 85 days.

Number of articles published in “Public and Municipal Finance” journal:

2012 – 17
2013 – 10
2014 – 10
2015 – 16
2016 – 19

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The author may deposit pre-print version of the paper (manuscript by the author, submitted to the journal, before peer-review and without any editorial amendments) to any platform anytime with acknowledgement to the Publisher and the Journal (acknowledgement should be made as follows: "This is a pre-peer-reviewed version of the paper submitted for publication to [name of the Journal] published by LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives").

The author may deposit post-print version of the paper (accepted version of the manuscript after peer-review and content amendments, but before copyediting, typesetting and proof correction) to the author's personal website, provided that it is non-commercial, and to the repository of the author's institution, provided that it will not be made publicly available (if the article is published in paid open access, it can be made publicly available immediately upon publication) , with acknowledgement of the Publisher and the Journal (acknowledgement should be made as follows: "This is an accepted peer-reviewed version of the paper. The published version of the article is available at LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives" at http://dx.doi.org/[DOI of the article]").

Published version of a subscription article
The author may not deposit published version of the paper (final edited and typeset version that is made publicly available by the Publisher and can be considered an article) to any institutional repository or make it publicly available in any way, except sharing it within the private groups inside their institutions.

Published version of an open-access article
The Author may deposit published version of the paper (final edited and typeset version that is made publicly available by the Publisher and can be considered an article) to any institutional repository, and distribute and make it publicly available in any way with acknowledgement to the Publisher and the Journal (acknowledgement should be made as follows: "This is a published version of the paper, available at LLC "CPC "Business Perspectives" at http://dx.doi.org/[DOI of the article]").

 

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Article processing charge (APC) is paid by authors only after the paper had been reviewed and accepted for publication. APC cover the costs of publication process, including peer-review administrating, copy editing, hosting the files etc. Business Perspectives does not employ submission or reviewing charges.

Article processing charge for “Public and Municipal Finance” is 395 €. Please request an invoice (or information about other methods of payment) from an editorial assistant or follow the link to Pay online.
If authors want the size of the article to exceed established limit (6000 words), they should contact an editorial assistant to elaborate on publication details.

Please pay attention that LLC “Consulting Publishing Company “Business Perspectives” can’t receive payments from high-risk and non-cooperative countries. The jurisdictions list http://www.fatf-gafi.org/countries/#high-risk.

After the issue is published, the corresponding author will receive one printed copy of the issue free of charge (additional copies are available for ordering from an editorial assistant).

Discounts
LLC “CPC “Business Perspectives” is considering discounts and waivers for particular cases and individuals. For this purpose authors should send an e-mail to the editorial assistant requesting a discount and specifying the reason.

Double-dipping Policy
“Public and Municipal Finance” addresses double-dipping and subscription price for each year is calculated depending on the number of open-access articles published in the journal during previous years.

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6 volumes and 16 issues