Women’s professional activity as an element of human capital management in the aspect of non-formal employment

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The aim of the article is an attempt to assess the impact of women’s occupational activity on the tendency to take up informal employment as an element of human capital management. The paper attempts to assess the relationship between the unemployment rate and the employment rate and the share of informal work in GDP. Methodology: The implementation of the objective required the use of statistical methods, in particular, linear regression methods. Results: The publication describes the nature of informal employment, the level of professional activity of women in the selected European Union countries in 2017. Based on statistical data, an attempt was made to assess the impact of professional activity among women on non-formal work based on the linear regression method.

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    • Figure 1. Informal economy and the level of undeclared work according to Schneider in the selected EU countries in 2017 (in %)
    • Figure 2. Regression model for shadow economy in terms of employment rate for women in the selected European Union countries
    • Figure 3. Regression model for shadow economy in terms of unemployment rate for women in the selected European Union countries
    • Figure 4. Regression model for illegal work in terms of employment rate for women in the selected European Union countries
    • Figure 5. Regression model for illegal work in terms of unemployment rate for women in the selected European Union countries
    • Figure 6. Employment rate gender gap in the European Union countries for the years 2010 and 2017
    • Table 1. Employment rate gender gap in the European Union countries for the years 2010 and 2017
    • Table 2. Wilcoxon matched pairs test for the years 2010 and 2017