Impact of culture, brand image and price on buying decisions: Evidence from East Java, Indonesia

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The marketing strategy phenomenon improves significantly, narrowing from a general to a specific cultural ethnicity base and from variable to dimension analysis. This study examines the impact of culture, brand image and price on buying decisions. The study population comprised retail consumers in the sampled area of Situbondo, East Java, Indonesia. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to derive a sample of 112 respondents as a primary data source – descriptive statistics allows for the demographic characteristics of retail consumers in East Java, Indonesia. Surprisingly, the data showed that gender involvement in buyer decision-making was dominant. Most retail customers were identified as private-sector employees and indicated for higher income earners. Responses were then analyzed using multiple linear regressions to answer the research hypotheses. The results showed that Hofstede’s culture dimension and the brand image and price significantly affected consumer buying decisions at retail stores in East Java, Indonesia. Regarding the strength of Islamic culture in East Java, price was the primary consideration in buying decisions. Further research, preferably using ethnographic approaches with an emphasis on qualitative research, is needed to investigate the implications of these relationships.

Acknowledgment
We would like to thank the Research Centre (LP2M) of University of Jember, East Java, Indonesia, for their support and funding. We also want to thank Rusdiyanto, a Ph.D. student from the Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, for his helpful discussions and contributions.

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    • Figure 1. Model normality
    • Table 1. Definition of operational variables and their indicators
    • Table 2. Multi-collinearity test result
    • Table 3. Heteroscedasticity test result
    • Table 4. Multiple linear regression summary
    • Table A1. Validity and reliability test result
    • Table B1. Multiple linear regression result
    • Conceptualization
      Sudaryanto Sudaryanto, Imam Suroso
    • Data curation
      Sudaryanto Sudaryanto, Anifatul Hanim, Jaloni Pansiri, Taskiya Latifatil Umama
    • Formal Analysis
      Sudaryanto Sudaryanto, Imam Suroso
    • Funding acquisition
      Sudaryanto Sudaryanto, Imam Suroso, Anifatul Hanim, Jaloni Pansiri
    • Investigation
      Sudaryanto Sudaryanto, Anifatul Hanim, Taskiya Latifatil Umama
    • Software
      Sudaryanto Sudaryanto, Jaloni Pansiri, Taskiya Latifatil Umama
    • Writing – original draft
      Sudaryanto Sudaryanto, Imam Suroso, Taskiya Latifatil Umama
    • Writing – review & editing
      Sudaryanto Sudaryanto, Jaloni Pansiri
    • Methodology
      Imam Suroso, Jaloni Pansiri
    • Resources
      Imam Suroso
    • Supervision
      Imam Suroso, Anifatul Hanim
    • Project administration
      Anifatul Hanim