Globalization of the tourism industry: scales, levels and institutional formats

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The article presents the author’s view of the impact of globalization, internationalization, transnationalization on the development of the international tourism industry with the substantiation of the features of institutional transformations caused by large-scale, structural and other changes in the world economy, in particular, the analysis of the development of the tourism industry of the leading countries, which are centers to attract tourist flow (France, USA, Spain, China, Italy), as well as Ukraine. As a result of correlation and regression models, the potential of the industry and its investment attractiveness were established. It is proved that within the countries’ economic activity, the tourism sector makes a significant contribution to the creation of the gross national product. Characterizing the coefficients in the multivariate regression equation, it can be stated that the most significant impact on GDP is the factor of “Income from international tourism”, since for all countries, it has a positive value greater than one. As for such a factor as “Total investment in the tourism industry”, for all but Ukraine, this factor is characterized by a negative impact on GDP, which determines the high costs of infrastructure development, which are not always paid off by the income of the incoming tourist flow in the short term.

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    • Table 1. Macroeconomic indicators of the international tourism market
    • Table 2. Leading countries in terms of investment in tourism for the period 2000–2016, USD billion
    • Table 3. Key indicators of tourism industry development in 2016
    • Table 4. Modelling the impact of tourism on GDP