Investigating the determinants of dividend policy in emerging markets using a combination of exploratory variables

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s. The authors analyze the factors causing dividend policy by utilizing agency cost theory of dividend and transaction cost of dividend by using blue chips companies stock listed in the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX) from 2004-2013. They also examine the transaction costs of bid-offer spread and commission as the proxies with agency cost factors of insider ownership and shareholder dispersion. The authors observe that the independent variables affected the dividend policy simultaneously. In addition, they find that the bid-offer spread as a new proxy also had significant effects on the dividend policy

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